Topic 6: Automatic Thoughts & Core Beliefs {by 10/20}

[Automatic Thoughts] – Watch MDD-12: Automatic Thoughts – Negative Automatic Thought Record.  Answer the following: (1) How is the client’s response to the outcome (emotionally and cognitively) helpful to understanding his distress? (2) What would be effective Socratic techniques to modify his negative automatic thought?

 

*I’ve decided to watch both automatic thoughts videos in class next week (eliciting, identifying, evaluating, modifying).

 

[Core Beliefs] – (1) How do core beliefs develop?  (2) What is it about core beliefs that can make them a challenge to modify in therapy?  (3) What are the therapeutic gains that come from modifying core beliefs?

 

Your original post should be posted by the beginning of class 10/20.  Have your two replies posted no later than 10/22.  *Please remember to click the “reply” button when posting a reply.  This makes it easier for the reader to follow the blog postings.

37 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Amanda L Bara
    Oct 17, 2022 @ 11:23:57

    Automatic Thoughts
    1. The client’s response to the outcome was emotional as he felt sad, lonely, and guilty. Even though Mark still went out to lunch by himself he began thinking or ruminating about the event. Understanding these emotions and thought patterns is helpful to understanding the client’s distress because it relates to a deeper core belief. Dr. V highlights the core belief that Mark is struggling with which is being unlikable. Through the negative emotions and rumination that Mark identifies, it is apparent that he struggles with others not being able to spend time with him. Knowing the response to the outcome, Dr. V can then target the thinking patterns and challenge them with Socratic techniques.

    2. One Socratic technique that would be effective in modifying Mark’s negative automatic thought is looking at the evidence in support of the thought and evidence that contradicts the thought. This will allow Mark to see that maybe there are instances where Jeff has spent time with him and shown that he is interested in having a friendship. This technique helps to show the validity of the situation and thought itself. It brings to light the contradicting evidence that does not support the thought. Another Socratic technique that may be effective in modifying Mark’s negative automatic thought it seeing if there is another explanation for what happened. If Mark is able to understand that maybe his friend had other commitments for lunch or was busy with other tasks he would not feel so hurt. Dr. V highlighted the cognitive distortion of personalization that Mark is struggling with in relation to this thought. Allowing Mark to see that there are other explanations for his friend declining lunch can help him to not personalize the situation so much.

    Core Beliefs

    1. Core beliefs develop in adolescence or childhood and are based off of interactions with other individuals that are deemed significant to the person. Certain life events that become significant may be traumatic experiences or successes. Genetics and biological vulnerabilities play a role in contributing to the development of core beliefs. There seems to be an interaction between significant people, events, and genetics that influence development. The reciprocity that these three factors have can be the determining factor in someone having psychological distress in relation to a belief.
    2. Because core beliefs have developed over a long period of time and have been supported through individual’s thought patterns their whole life it can be difficult to modify them. It is important to select appropriate Socratic techniques that can change a client’s perception of their belief. Not all techniques will work for every individual, therefore it is important to understand the context of the belief and as much information as possible about how it evolved. Most of these beliefs have had some aspect of validity either in the past or present so the therapist must choose the right way to challenge the belief.
    3. Being able to modify a core belief in therapy has many therapeutic advantages. If done correctly, the client will be able to think more rationally about certain events or situations. They will be more skilled at interpreting events in a way that does not negatively impact their thoughts and emotions. This will help to build rapport with the therapist as well. If a client is making change in therapy they will be more willing to trust the therapist and find the motivation to keep working. Modifying a core belief will help the client to ultimately stop negative thoughts from impacting their life and they will be less likely to engage in cognitive distortions. In the end, these individual’s will have more positive emotions and thought patterns in regards to distressing situations.

    Reply

    • Bekah Riley
      Oct 18, 2022 @ 07:25:28

      Hi Amanda,
      I loved reading your response this week! I thought you did a nice job of explaining how even though the client was still able to get lunch, his level of distress was still high. As you mentioned, this client ruminating on the event may be because of a core belief he has regarding being unlikable. I also agree that a Socratic technique that may be useful is looking at the evidence that both supports and contradicts his negative automatic thought. I think since this client does tend to catastrophize as well as ruminate in negative thoughts and emotions, suggesting that this thought may in fact not be valid may be helpful in terms of finding more adaptive ways to think.
      Overall, great response!

      Reply

    • Ashley Torres
      Oct 18, 2022 @ 12:06:02

      Hi Amanda, I enjoyed how informative your response is. I agree with you, it is very important to identify the core belief and use that as a foundation in exploring the distress. Dr. V highlighted how his core belief of unlikeableness may be affecting his negative automatic thoughts. This is very beneficial in therapy because the therapist is now aware of where the negative automatic thoughts are coming from and can challenge his thinking.

      Reply

  2. Bekah Riley
    Oct 17, 2022 @ 11:45:26

    When going through the Negative Automatic Thought Record, evaluating and understanding the client’s response to the outcome of his specific thought both emotionally and cognitively is helpful to the client and therapist in terms of understanding his distress. For this particular client, his specific behavior was asking another individual out to lunch. The outcome this behavior led to the individual rejecting the offer and the client having to go eat lunch by himself. Although the client was still able to get lunch, having to eat it by himself caused negative thoughts and emotions. Specifically, the client described thinking the other individual does not want to spend time with him, that he is unlikeable, and he felt both lonely and sad. Knowing these cognitions and emotions is helpful in understanding the intense level of distress this client experiences when he puts himself out there in the hopes of engaging in a social interaction but is rejected. This client automatically thinks negatively of himself in terms of how likeable he is, ultimately causing him to experience very negative emotions, leading to him potentially withdrawing from his other daily activities.

    In terms of helping this client to modify his negative automatic thoughts, using various Socratic techniques may be beneficial. Specifically, a Socratic technique that I think would be helpful for this client is assessing the impact of believing the negative automatic thought. Some questions I may ask the client are what is the outcome of believing people do not what to spend time with you or that you are unlikable, and what could be the outcome of changing this thought? This may allow the client to think about the additional negative thoughts and emotions he felt and how that had an impact on his day moving forward as well as how working to change the negative outcome of his thought may be beneficial. Specifically, identifying his thoughts and feelings about eating lunch on his own and how modifying his negative automatic thoughts could have made his lunch more enjoyable.

    Core beliefs are those beliefs an individual has about their view of themselves, others or their environment and are often times rigid and believed to be valid and true by the individual. These beliefs usually develop early on in childhood and may continue through adolescence or even adulthood. Core beliefs may develop from interactions with influential individuals, significant life events, or by having a specific biological vulnerability. When a client has a negative or multiple negative core beliefs, they can be challenging to modify in therapy. In that these beliefs generally develop in childhood and may be reinforced throughout adolescence and adulthood, it may be hard for a client to view this belief as modifiable or changeable. In addition, core beliefs are believed to be both valid and true by the client, and this mindset is often rigid and thought to be unchangeable. In terms of identifying and modifying a core belief from the therapist’s perspective, the therapist may find it challenging to identify the client’s core beliefs and find Socratic techniques that may be beneficial in modifying the belief, while also having difficulty helping the client develop a new core belief. However, there are a number of therapeutic gains that arise from modifying core beliefs. Specifically, promoting more adaptive core beliefs that are less extreme than the negative core beliefs. This may allow the client to begin experiencing more adaptive cognitive and behavioral patterns, ultimately reducing distress.

    Reply

    • Ashley Torres
      Oct 18, 2022 @ 12:09:57

      Hi Bekah, great response this week! I agree with you and identifying the client’s thoughts and feelings during his lunch is beneficial. The client will need to learn to modify that thought process next time he feels rejected or feeling lonely. I also think it would be helpful to ask the client why he believes in his negative automatic thoughts. Sometimes there is little to no evidence why their thoughts are accurate and can encourage the client to stop and think the next time he engages in distorted thinking.

      Reply

    • Tom Mandozzi
      Oct 19, 2022 @ 22:49:04

      Hi Bekah,

      I really appreciated reading your response to this week’s discussion questions! I liked what you said about how identifying Mark’s thoughts and feelings about eating lunch on his own and then ultimately modifying the negative thoughts associated with this experience, might support Mark in being able to increase his level of pleasure and enjoyment when he is having lunch. By becoming aware of negative automatic thoughts and how they dictate our behavior and our core beliefs, we can take the next step in modifying these thoughts and develop a better understanding of ourselves and how we navigate the world around us to become more adaptively functioning and improve our quality of life. Identifying and tracking these patterns is the first step before the change can be made, though. Great point!

      Reply

    • Teresia Maina
      Oct 22, 2022 @ 20:26:34

      Hi Bekah,

      I enjoyed reading your post! I agree with Mark’s examining the impact of believing negative automatic thoughts is important. It can help him in the future recognize how when he feels rejected it’s easy to find a reason to accept his negative automatic thoughts. It may also be important to ask the client reasons why their negative automatic thoughts are incorrect. Overall, great post!

      Reply

  3. NikkiAnn Ryan
    Oct 17, 2022 @ 22:25:26

    The client identified that he felt lonely and isolated as a result of his behavior. He also identified that he was feeling bad, sad, and guilty when he was eating lunch by himself at the park. This response is helpful because it assists with identifying the deeper core beliefs that the client’s negative automatic thoughts and distress emerge from, which is an important part of alleviating future distress. In this case, the client is observed to be struggling with the core belief of being unlikeable. Understanding the client’s response contributed to understanding his distress and will subsequently help determine which techniques will help modify his negative core belief. It may be beneficial for the client to try the Socratic technique of separating oneself from the negative automatic thought. Perhaps he could ask himself, “what I tell a friend or family member (such as his girlfriend) if they had a similar thought?” and then see if what he would say to them could also apply to himself. Based on what we know about the client, he seems to care about other people including his girlfriend and the friends he attempts to hang out with so this technique may be beneficial for him to modify his thought. The client could also try the technique of examining the evidence. He has done similar techniques of examining the evidence for and against his thoughts in his sessions already so he should be equipped to practice this technique.

    Core beliefs serve as templates for rules for individuals’ information processing and usually develop during childhood into adolescence, however, they can also develop in adulthood. They often emerge due to the combination of significant others and life events and biological vulnerability. Significant life events may include both traumatic experiences and successes and may involve significant individuals such as parents, teachers, and peers. Biological vulnerabilities may include intelligence, temperament, and specific skills. Humans experience both positive and negative core beliefs. Negative core beliefs are often more pronounced when an individual experiences psychological distress. When psychological distress is minimal or manageable, the negative core beliefs may not have much of an effect, whereas when the psychological distress is excessive and unmanageable, the negative core beliefs are more prominent and, consequently, the individual experiences more negative automatic thoughts. Core beliefs can be challenging to modify because they are biased, meaning that the individual will more easily recognize and be reinforced by information that supports their negative core belief and will disregard the information that contradicts it. Additionally, negative core beliefs are also self-perpetuating because they are reinforced by the individual’s negative automatic thoughts, unhelpful emotions, and maladaptive behaviors. Modifying core beliefs can be highly beneficial because it can reduce negative automatic thoughts and distress and can improve the way clients view themselves, other people, and the world. Additionally, modifying one negative core belief can also influence other negative core beliefs and maladaptive thinking patterns which can further diminish distress.

    Reply

    • Bekah Riley
      Oct 18, 2022 @ 07:31:24

      Hi NikkiAnn,
      I really enjoyed reading your response this week! Specifically, I thought you did an amazing job at describing core beliefs. Your definition of core beliefs as templates for rules when an individual processes various information was very clear and concise. In addition, I really liked how you gave examples of each contributing factor to developing core beliefs. This really helped me gain a solid understanding on how each factor works to develop different core beliefs starting in childhood and often leading individuals into adulthood.
      Overall, great response!

      Reply

    • Patricia Ortiz
      Oct 21, 2022 @ 13:51:26

      Hi NikkiAnn, I also believe that it may be beneficial for the client to try the Socratic technique of “separating oneself from the negative automatic thought.” As you mentioned, he seems to care a lot for other people, his girlfriend, friends, etc. So, I think that if he views his thinking from another perspective (girlfriend, for instance), I think he would be able to understand that maybe he is too hard on himself and that there could be a lot of reasons why his friend declined his invitation. As we saw in the video, he even remembered that one time his friend asked him to go out. That way, he is going to personalize the events less and not jump to conclusions.

      Reply

  4. Ashley Torres
    Oct 18, 2022 @ 11:54:11

    1. It is helpful to understand the client’s response emotionally and cognitively because it will help the therapeutic pair understand where the distress is coming from and how it is developed. Evaluating his response can be used to discover his core belief associated with his automatic thoughts. The client shared he felt lonely because his friend denied his invitation for lunch. At the moment, he thought his friend did not want to make time for him or did not like him. As a result, he went to lunch by himself and let his thoughts continue to run causing more distress. It is important to understand the client’s thoughts at the moment and how long they last for. The client was not able to quickly redirect his thought process therefore his core belief of being unlikable continues to cause distress.

    Effective socratic techniques to challenge the client’s behavior would be to ask the client why his distress continues after the event is over. For example, he felt sad when he was rejected but why was he still sad when he went to lunch? Then we can question why we thought he was unlikable and what supports his thinking? This can be helpful because the therapist can explain how everyone has negative automatic thoughts but they are not always true. Trying to find evidence that supports and does not support his thinking pattern can help him realize his distorted thinking.

    2. Core beliefs are guides with rules that we use to process information. We use the guide to develop assumptions about ourselves and the world around us from the overgeneralized views. Core beliefs are developed through experiences, genetics, and biological vulnerability, like temperament. They can develop from both significant traumatic events or positive events that come from influential individuals. Core beliefs are ingrained and sources from which automatic thoughts develop. They are embedded in our thinking and control our behavior and emotions. Beck recognized that core beliefs are content that are made up firm cognitive schemas. Core beliefs can be challenging to modify because usually, they have been ingrained early in life. The client believes these thoughts are true and they have been believing it for a long period of time. These negative beliefs have also been reinforced multiple times throughout their lives through experiences and events. If a therapeutic pair can modify core beliefs, their thinking pattern will change. As a result, they will learn to modify negative automatic thoughts and minimize distress. Adapting a new healthy core belief can also help minimize the number of negative automatic thoughts and engage in healthier thought patterns.

    Reply

    • Patricia Ortiz
      Oct 21, 2022 @ 13:57:45

      Hi Ashley, I agree that an effective Socratic technique to challenge the client’s behavior would be to ask why his distress continues after the event is over. As you mentioned, trying to find evidence that supports and does not support his thinking pattern can help him realize his distorted thinking, and also, I think this also will help us to know which beliefs are really rooted and which ones have a more elevated believability. That way, we are going to be able to know which techniques to use later with him and follow through.

      Reply

    • Rylee L Ferguson
      Oct 22, 2022 @ 13:14:18

      Hi Ashley, I liked your idea for what Socratic technique would be effective for Mark. I think asking about the duration and intensity of his emotions after the event can help him get some needed perspective. His emotions often seem to send him in a long-lasting negative spiral. Even though the inciting event is just a few moments, it can ruin the rest of his day. Hopefully by exploring the power and long lasting effects of his thoughts Mark can come to realize that they need not take over his life. It can motivate his willingness to modify them throughout further therapy sessions.

      Reply

    • Teresia Maina
      Oct 22, 2022 @ 20:27:54

      Hi Ashley, great post! You did a great job explaining core beliefs. Especially the fact that core beliefs are developed from traumatic events but also positive events. They are deep-rooted due to the fact that some of them were developed early in life. I agree that modifying core beliefs may be challenging, but if achieved, it can play a role in modifying negative automatic thoughts. Overall, I enjoyed reading your post!

      Reply

  5. Patricia Ortiz
    Oct 19, 2022 @ 01:22:20

    [Automatic Thoughts] – Watch MDD-12: Automatic Thoughts – Negative Automatic Thought Record. Answer the following:

    (1) How is the client’s response to the outcome (emotionally and cognitively) helpful to understanding his distress?

    The client’s response to the outcome is helpful in understanding their distress because we can better understand how much the negative automatic thoughts are interfering with their daily life and how interested they are in modifying specific automatic thoughts. For example, he said that he believed some of his core beliefs and automatic thoughts an eight or a nine out of ten, and also, he stated that he felt “hurt,” so, with that information, we have enough to work on, follow through and elaborate a great plan with the correct techniques.

    2) What would be effective Socratic techniques to modify his negative automatic thought?

    I think that a Socratic technique that would be effective with this client is to examine the evidence and determine if the negative core belief is invalid. Knowing the validity of his automatic thoughts is essential because many core beliefs have been part of clients’ thinking for a significant portion of their lives and reinforced by multiple adverse life events and corresponding outcomes. It is crucial to know how many times he has gone through the same situation to have that pattern of distorted thinking.
    Also, this client presents rumination of thoughts and personalization. He said that people did not want to be with him after he asked his friend Jeff to go to lunch with him, and he said no. He had the idea that this event was his fault even when he had little to no influence on the outcome. In actuality, the circumstance had absolutely nothing to do with him.
    He tends to direct his focus of attention towards specific thoughts and/or memories that arouse an intense emotional response, generally associated with anxiety or sadness. In many cases, there is an anxious or depressive-type disorder behind this type of alteration, and on other occasions, it interferes with specific aspects of day-to-day life; According to what I have seen about him until now, I can see where his anxiety and depression might come from. Also, his thoughts have a self-perpetuating component, and he jumps a lot to conclusions.
    I think another great technique to use with him would be viewing the negative core belief on a continuum. Clients can regulate their thinking and, at the very least, move their core beliefs closer to the middle by understanding their core beliefs as a continuum rather than as two opposite extremes. The client will feel some relief whenever the continuum moves away from its negative extreme and toward its center. He believes his automatic thoughts are 80% and 90% accurate, which is undoubtedly extreme punctuation. So with this technique, we could try to make him lessen this percentage to a moderate state.
    For example, instead of “nobody wants to hang out with me,” he could think, “sometimes people have other things to do.” This knowledge can be utilized to encourage clients to see that, despite their limitations, there is room for improvement and stress reduction and that there is flexibility (or a middle ground).

    [Core Beliefs] – (1) How do core beliefs develop?

    Core beliefs develop in childhood through experiences and past situations that we go through. Core beliefs are the most fundamental notions about oneself, other people, and the world. At a very young age, people begin to form core beliefs shaped by their genetic predisposition, interactions with influential people, and the interpretations they make of their experiences and environment. When a core belief is inaccurate, judgmental, or unhelpful, it profoundly affects a person’s self-efficacy and self-concept and continued vulnerability to mood distress.

    (2) What is it about core beliefs that can make them a challenge to modify in therapy?

    Core beliefs can be challenging to modify in therapy because they are very old, settled, and encased in our brains. They are our “truth,” the “reality” from which we see the world. Although these beliefs are deeply rooted and difficult to change, when learned, they can also be unlearned and changed for healthier ones. The first step is to identify these unhealthy beliefs and where they started to take root.

    (3) What are the therapeutic gains that come from modifying core beliefs?

    Core beliefs determine how the clients see the world and themselves, how they perceive the information from the environment, how they respond to it, and how they cognitively process it. By modifying core beliefs, we can change the way the client negatively see themselves and the world, and by doing that, they can gain self-awareness, they can go through the same experiences in a more adaptive way, and resist future distress or stressors because they are going to be able to recognize and modify their automatic thoughts. So, with that being said, by modifying the client’s core beliefs, we are giving them a sense of autonomy and control and preventing them from responding in a maladaptive way in future situations. Also, the therapist’s CBT case formulation and interventions will be more thorough and effective if they have a thorough understanding of their client’s core beliefs, associated negative automatic thoughts, and reinforcing behaviors.

    Reply

    • NikkiAnn Ryan
      Oct 20, 2022 @ 15:43:50

      Hi Patricia,

      I think you did a great job explaining core beliefs and how they develop. I thought it was particularly interesting and helpful that you connected negative core beliefs to the individual’s self-efficacy and self-concept. Core beliefs serve as guides for processing information so inaccurate and unhelpful core beliefs will certainly influence the way individuals process information and how they view themselves and their abilities. Great connection!

      Reply

    • Yoana Catano
      Oct 22, 2022 @ 23:28:30

      Hi Patricia,
      You brought an important view of the use of Socratic techniques for this client. He seems to be ready for challenging his automatic thoughts, and examining the evidence would bring different conclusions than the ones he has now, reducing the believability of his thoughts. As it was seen in class, Socratic questions help clients “get to the truth” in their own words.

      Reply

  6. Rachel Marsh
    Oct 19, 2022 @ 20:18:46

    Automatic Thoughts
    Question 1
    Understanding the client’s response to the outcome is beneficial to gain insight into their distress for several reasons. Firstly, this can help provide insight into the client’s coping mechanisms to address the event. For example, in the video, Mark isolated himself and engaged in rumination about the event. By understanding an individual’s coping behaviors in response to events, the counselor can help the client identify more adaptive ways to deal with unpleasant emotions if necessary.
    Additionally, it can help provide a sequence back to the original core belief that led to the emotions and behaviors that preceded the event. Going back to Mark, in addition to isolating and ruminating, he also felt sad and guilty. In the video, we see how Dr. V used these behavioral and emotional responses to the event to relate them to Mark’s core beliefs. Mark holds the core belief that he is unlikable and has automatic thoughts stemming from this core belief. Subsequently, this leads to his feelings of guilt and sadness as well as his rumination and isolation. By understanding these responses and leading them back to automatic thoughts and core beliefs, a counselor can then collaborate with clients to modify those thoughts and beliefs to be more helpful and realistic.
    Question 2
    To modify the automatic negative thought, several techniques might be assessing evidence, exploring alternative explanations, and having the client take a step back from the thought by asking the client what advice they might give to someone else in a similar situation. Firstly, when assessing evidence about automatic thoughts, it would be beneficial to identify evidence that both supports and contradicts the thought or belief. For example, after Jeff brushed Mark off, Mark had automatic thoughts suggesting that Jeff disliked him. It might be helpful to ask him to identify evidence that supports his thought, which Mark might perceive as Jeff ignoring him and avoiding eye contact with him. On the other hand, some evidence that might contradict his thought is that Mark regularly goes out for lunch and socializes with Jeff at work.
    Another technique to modify Mark’s automatic thought could be exploring alternative explanations for the thought. This is useful in helping the client come up with reasons that might be more useful and realistic than a fully negative conclusion. Regarding Mark’s situation, this might be that Jeff was busy and did not have time to leave for lunch; Jeff might have been having a bad day and took it out on Mark or may have been wearing headphones and inadvertently ignored Mark.
    Finally, asking Mark what advice he might give to a friend in a similar situation might be helpful. Doing this is beneficial to help Mark step away from his perception of the event and adopt the perception of an outsider. Unfortunately, we often have difficulty assessing our circumstances, but we can help loved ones in similar situations. Doing this would help promote objectivity in thought.

    Core Beliefs
    Question 1

    Core beliefs develop early in childhood and stem from interactions, genetics, and the meaning of experiences the individual constructs. As the individual develops, they create what Beck terms schemas, which are representations associated with events and stimuli. When an event congruent with these schemas occurs, the individual’s core beliefs related to the events become more prominent. Once this occurs, the individual may view an event through the lens of their core beliefs. The schema strengthens a pre-existing core belief and may elicit other secondary core beliefs. For example, an individual may develop the core belief that they are unloved at a young age due to experiences of people in their lives abandoning them and making them feel like a burden. When a similar situation arises, such as the ending of a significant relationship, this core belief is likely to become more prominent.

    Question 2

    Core beliefs can be difficult to modify in therapy for several reasons but primarily because the individual holds them so deeply, they lack the skills to identify the belief as being maladaptive, or they have difficulty identifying and developing an alternate core belief.
    Given that core beliefs are learned from experiences going back as far as childhood, the client has likely held these beliefs through most, if not all, of their life. Due to this, the client may find It difficult to change their beliefs. This is true even in the face of the strongest opposing evidence. Moreover, the individual may fail to realize that their core beliefs are inaccurate and/or maladaptive. The individual perceives these beliefs as true due to the influence these events have had on their lives. For example, if a client were bullied through high school and were continuously told they were worthless by others, they would likely hold the core belief that they are useless. However, because others have suggested the client verbally or indicated this in other ways, the individual holds this to be true. Alternatively, some clients may be able to acknowledge that their core beliefs are distorted or maladaptive but may have difficulty identifying and constructing an alternate belief that is more accurate and helpful.

    Question 3

    As previously highlighted, core beliefs differ from automatic thoughts in that they are more general and firmly held. Additionally, automatic thoughts may also stem from core beliefs. Thus, by modifying core beliefs to be more realistic and helpful, the subsequent automatic thoughts should follow the same path.
    Another way in which core beliefs are beneficial to address in therapy is by helping clients change their general perception of themselves, other people, and the world. Rather than solely addressing automatic thoughts, also addressing the core beliefs that they stem from can effect a greater change. Changing their general perception of how they seem themselves can increase the client’s self-efficacy and sense of self-worth. Regarding how they see others and society in general, changing clients’ core beliefs can increase trust and a sense of realistic optimism in others. In turn, this can positively affect their interactions with others and society.
    Finally, modifying core beliefs can decrease the distress that an individual experiences. This is largely due to the decrease in the magnitude and occurrences of automatic thoughts the individual experiences.

    Reply

    • Tom Mandozzi
      Oct 19, 2022 @ 22:53:40

      Hi Rachel,

      I really liked the way you suggested asking Mark what advice he might give a friend in a similar situation as a potential strategy or technique to implement in therapy in supporting identifying and modifying negative automatic thoughts. I completely agree, I think this sounds like a very appropriate intervention to help Mark separate himself from the presenting problem and look at things from a new and more objective perspective. Sometimes we need to take a step back and look at the situation from an outside perspective to see how we can problem solve the situation and adapt our ways of thinking and the way in which we approach life events. Thanks for incorporating this idea into your response, it definitely had me thinking about how I would support a client like Mark in session! Great post!

      Reply

    • Yoana Catano
      Oct 22, 2022 @ 23:40:55

      Hi Rachel,
      Your example of ending a relationship and the activation of the core belief of unlovability is a good way to show how in some cases, this event is experienced with more intensity, due to the perception that is linked to childhood and the experiences that had shaped this view of the world, self, and others. The event itself could be an important stressor, but the event itself doesn’t produce emotions if not with the cognitive processing that comes from our learned ways to cope with stressful situations.

      Reply

  7. Tom Mandozzi
    Oct 19, 2022 @ 22:43:44

    The outcome is helpful to incorporate in the client’s thought record because it provides an understanding of how the experienced automatic thoughts may have a significant impact on the rest of the day or subsequent events in the client’s life. For example, the client reported that when his friend denied going to lunch with him, he said the outcome was being isolated, lonely and getting lunch by himself. He experienced rumination about the event and had a pattern of continually thinking negative thoughts about this situation. By tracking the outcomes of the events and not only the events themselves, the client and therapist can get a better sense of patterns of behavior, cognition and emotion that result from some of the automatic thoughts that arise. By getting a sense of these patterns, interventions can be implemented to improve thought patterns and target ways to manage responses to such negative automatic thoughts in the future. For example, if there is a pattern of outcomes resulting in feeling isolated or as if people do not like Mark, then this can be an area of focus in the work that Dr. V does with Mark moving forward. Evaluating the outcomes of automatic thoughts can help both the client and the clinician get a better sense of the level and nature of distress the client is experiencing and how this informs cognitive and emotional responses as a result. I think an appropriate Socratic technique to implement with the client is evaluating the evidence for the automatic thought and exploring different and potentially more realistic and objective alternative explanations. When Jeff denied Mark’s request to go out for lunch together, Mark’s automatic thoughts were that Jeff did not like him and ultimately informed the outcome that he felt unlikeable. Dr. V and Mark could explore other explanations for this in session and work on identifying other possible reasons that Jeff did not agree to lunch with Mark, such as, he was busy with other tasks, he already had lunch plans, etc. Clients who experience significant negative automatic thoughts may have a hard time taking a step back and challenging the automatic thought to come up with other reasons for a particular situation. This strategy would allow Mark to begin working on the way he responds to negative automatic thoughts so that he can experience better outcomes.

    Core beliefs are all-or-nothing statements that provide rules for how we process information. Such beliefs are often rigid, global, and overgeneralized regarding the way in which the world, the self, and others work. Patterns of thinking and a series of automatic thoughts over time can determine and shape our core beliefs and inform functioning. Core beliefs typically develop during childhood or adolescence based on a combination of significant life events and processes related to biological vulnerability. At the time of development, these core beliefs may or may not have served a functional purpose but are now considered invalid. Over time and across numerous life events, core beliefs are often through a lens that recognizes only information that supports the belief while disregarding evidence that is contrary or against the belief. This makes core beliefs difficult to modify in therapy due to the nature of them being long held and rigid. A series of stressful or significant life events can mold core beliefs and influence the nature in which they are believed. Negative core beliefs fall into the following three categories: Helplessness, worthlessness, or unlovability. Some beliefs can fall into multiple, or even all, of these categories. These core beliefs are self-perpetuating in that they are reinforced by patterns of automatic thoughts, strong emotions, and behaviors. Though difficult, one can deliberately attempt to modify existing core beliefs associated with their automatic thoughts. New or modified core beliefs can shift the emotional intensity of, and distress level experienced by the individual. Core beliefs can be changed or replaced and are not fixed when initially developed. Modifying core beliefs can result in therapeutic gains by reducing negative automatic thoughts and improving levels of distress. A client can improve the way they view the world around them and improve functioning across life domains. Modification of one negative core belief can result in a pattern in which other negative core beliefs and negative thinking patterns are changed to improve wellbeing and the implementation of adaptive and healthy thinking patterns and behaviors.

    Reply

    • Tuyen Phung
      Oct 21, 2022 @ 08:29:18

      Hi Tom,
      Your analysis of determining automatic thoughts of Mar and how to deal with it is very clear. Your explanation about how core beliefs are difficult to modify in therapy makes me think more about it when you mention that the nature of core beliefs is long-held and rigid. I completely agree with you at this point. In fact, core beliefs are formed through the personal experiences of clients over the course of their lives, from their childhood to adulthood. Therefore, the core beliefs are stick with them internally and hard to change in a short period of time. Also, the core beliefs cannot be uncovered unless there is a strong therapeutic relationship and clients do not feel empathy from therapists. It is cautious to discover and proceed to change in clients because of the challenges.

      Reply

    • Rylee L Ferguson
      Oct 22, 2022 @ 13:18:40

      Hi Tom, I think the point you made about only noticing evidence in favor of existing core beliefs was especially important. It shows how powerful these beliefs are and how hard they can be to shake once they have developed. This is another way in which they perpetuate themselves and keep the individual from questioning them.

      Reply

  8. Yoana Catano
    Oct 19, 2022 @ 23:01:24

    [Automatic Thoughts] In the video we can see how helpful is the thought record for the client to understand what is happening with his emotions, it brings insight again into reciprocal determinism. Mark is in distress because he thinks his friend doesn’t like to spend time with him and he has some validity since his friend said “no” to his invitation, which made him feel hurt. The response that Mark has to the event, is to still go out for lunch alone, but during that time, he reinforces those negative emotions; with some rumination, he feels sad, lonely, and isolated then it brings the thoughts that “people don’t want to be with me” as self-perpetuating and completing the cycle toward a core belief. It is helpful within the context of therapy, to analyze the outcome emotionally and cognitively in the maintenance of distress, so he can learn from it and use it in other events in his life, the client will go home and complete some other thoughts and emotions records and see a pattern that maintains the problem.
    In the video, Dr. V has started preparing the client for some evidence of his thought, and this would be a good way to challenge his automatic thoughts, it doesn’t mean that if one friend says no, all people will say no to him, and he will have to bring some evidence for the opposite, for example, Melissa says yes, the waitress in the restaurant liked him, or some other situations that he could bring to prove that his emotion doesn’t need to be 8-9 in intensity, he could feel hurt, but it can be just a 2-3 because it still could bother but doesn’t have to be problematic if is not overgeneralized. This could bring another technique of decatastrophizing the situation.
    Mark could think about what would be the consequence if everyone says no to him and what he would do to cope with it, maybe he would experience that the worst scenario could be manageable or not and find a more realistic point of view.

    [Core Beliefs] Core beliefs are developed mainly from childhood, but they can be developed in adulthood, and they are thoughts that are installed in our mind as a result of significant events, significant others, and genetics, in reciprocal interaction. They are unique lenses to interpret or understand oneself, others, and the world. Thus, core beliefs can be positive or negative, they can be events that teach the individual that they are capable of doing certain activities, but they also can be traumatic events that are perceived as debilitating for the individual who can feel “damaged”. They are challenging in therapy because the individual is used to ignoring information that contradicts their core beliefs, they have been shaped, and reinforced and thus they are rigid. The individual thinks they are true and discards everything that says the opposite. In other words, the client comes to therapy with good training in ignoring the evidence against the core belief that has lasted for years, thus the first try from the therapist to challenge or modify them could not be effective immediately. In this sense, starting from automatic thoughts could lead to reaching better a core belief. Once a core belief is modified, the client could have a lens that would provide a different understanding of the world, others, or oneself, in this case, an event can be perceived differently, and thus positive or more realistic thoughts will come automatically, impacting the emotions and wellbeing.

    Reply

    • Rachel Marsh
      Oct 23, 2022 @ 13:30:04

      Hello Yoana,

      I enjoyed reading your post! I especially appreciate how you related automatic thoughts to core beliefs. You make a great point when you talk about how addressing automatic thoughts can help pinpoint the core belief which they stem from. For example, in the video we saw that Mark had the automatic negative thought that Jeff did not want to spend time with him. In previous videos with Mark, his automatic thoughts tend to follow a similar theme. This theme can be related back to Mark’s core belief indicating that he is unlikable.
      I also like how you mention the challenges behind addressing core beliefs. People hold these beliefs to be true because of their perception of circumstances that contributed to the development of these beliefs. By starting small with automatic negative thoughts, one can progressively begin to pinpoint the core beliefs which these thoughts stem from and challenge those in addition.
      Overall, great post!

      Reply

  9. Tuyen Phung
    Oct 20, 2022 @ 08:17:49

    Automatic thought
    1. Understanding negative automatic thought is important to see its influence on the distress of clients. With Mark, he talked about the event that caused distress for him during the week. Specifically, he described the event in which he invited his friend, Jeff, for lunch but Jeff could not go with him. His thinking that Jeff did not want to spend time with him brought him negative feelings. Dr. V asked him about his response to this event, leading to his awareness of the influence of his negative automatic thought on his life. His response to having lunch lonely at the park and feeling isolated can be seen in the analysis between both. Emotionally, Mark felt sad and isolated. Cognitively, he assumed that he was unlovable, and Jeff did not want to spend time with him. Mark’s response to the outcome brought him better awareness of how his thoughts influence his behavior and vice versa. As a result, Mark could see how his thought caused his distress.
    2. With automatic thought, there are various Socratic techniques to modify negative automatic thoughts. Each person used a different technique to modify the negative automatic thought. For me, I may ask him about the impact of believing the negative automatic thought. On the one hand, Mark was partly aware of the consequences of the thought on his behavior and emotions as feeling sad and isolated. Simply, I can ask him, ‘What is the outcome of believing that Jeff does not want to spend time with you?” Asking the question can help him see its impact on his distress.

    Core beliefs
    1. Core beliefs can develop in several ways. Most popularly, core beliefs develop throughout time. It can be formed from their interactions with significant others and friends. Moreover, it can be at events in their childhood and a specific time of adulthood. Moreover, events that are significant can contribute to the formation of core beliefs. Also, I think that the core beliefs of a person can be formed through the knowledge and ideation of people that they really admire.
    2. Several factors can make core beliefs challenging to modify in therapy. First, core beliefs are the ingrained and global sources. Therefore, it can be difficult to recognize unless therapists are competent in observing and modifying it. Second, a solid therapeutic relationship is necessary before modifying core beliefs, therefore, it takes time and deep mutual understanding to touch the core beliefs. As noted above, core beliefs are formed from clients’ personal experiences, so they can be solid and sensitive at times to touch.
    3. Understanding core beliefs is an important part of leading to change. Therefore, modifying core beliefs and their impact can lead to a therapeutic change in clients. For therapists, modifying the core beliefs of clients can be beneficial for them to form case conceptualization and effective treatment. For clients, understanding their negative core beliefs can help them understand how the core beliefs cause their issues and how changing them into positive core beliefs can be beneficial for their well-being.

    Reply

    • NikkiAnn Ryan
      Oct 20, 2022 @ 15:59:04

      Hi Tuyen,

      I really liked the way you described and explained automatic thoughts and core beliefs. I think you made a great point about how core beliefs can be challenging to modify, specifically, that a solid therapeutic relationship is necessary before approaching conversations about core beliefs. It is important to build rapport prior to modifying core beliefs because this requires trust and the client may think that you are focusing on the “wrong” things if you go into modifying core beliefs too quickly. Great post!

      Reply

    • Tayler Shea
      Oct 20, 2022 @ 20:59:01

      Hi Tuyen,

      I like how you point out that asking mark what the outcomes of his negative automatic thoughts. I also wrote in my response that I would ask Mark what the benefits and consequences are of his automatic thoughts in regard to his mental health and distress. His core beliefs that he is unlovable and/or worthless cause Mark a lot of distress in his day-to-day life! I like how you noted that to break down negative automatic thoughts and core beliefs the client and therapist must have a strong therapeutic relationship. Great response!

      Reply

  10. Rylee L Ferguson
    Oct 20, 2022 @ 12:45:02

    Learning the client’s emotional response to the outcome helps inform how much their feelings were impacted by the negative automatic thought. This is important as even though they may not consciously be thinking negatively about the outcome, their feelings can reveal their level of distress resulting from the original thought. On the other hand, their cognitions are also important as it can reflect how much they are impacted as well, especially when they are less aware of their emotions and more inclined to express things as thoughts. Having both of these means of measuring a client’s distress can help the therapist understand how debilitating the outcomes of the automatic thoughts can be and how far reaching they may be. The more intense one rates one’s negative emotions and thoughts after the outcome the more effort the therapist should expect to put into dealing with the associated negative automatic thought. However, if the client seems minimally affected by the outcome perhaps they already have a basis of coping skills that can just be expanded upon to further help shape their thinking and feeling.

    In this case, an effective Socratic technique might be asking himself if there is another possible explanation for what had happened. It seems like this client presumes rationales to his negative social interactions that place all the blame on him. This then leads him to think poorly of himself and causes him to seek isolation which ultimately worsens his depression. Instead, when presented with this sort of scenario it may be helpful to think of alternative explanations that might rationalize his friend’s behavior towards him. For instance, a friend might say no to lunch even though they want to because they have other plans already. Seeing things from this perspective does not imply that there is fault in the client and allows him to move on with his day without blaming himself or feeling lesser. Choosing to think this way may prevent further isolation and worsening symptoms.

    One key feature of core beliefs is that they most often develop during childhood or adolescence due to negative life events as well as biological vulnerability. Oftentimes the events are important interactions with significant individuals in the child’s life such as parents, teachers, or friends. For example, a very emotionally sensitive individual might experience a life event such as moving across the country as more negative than an emotionally resilient person, and develop negative core beliefs about themselves as a result. Core beliefs also usually develop because they are at least partially true at the time. For instance, the individual who moved might develop a core belief of helplessness because their life changed massively and they had no control over it. So while identifying as helpless was helpful to explaining the situation at the time, the idea would remain a core belief long after it was useful or valid. Lastly, negative core beliefs develop because they are self-perpetuating. Once an individual begins to think negative things about themselves as a whole, it produces negative automatic thoughts that reinforce the original thinking. This pattern of thinking is then very difficult to break as it can be subconscious and accepted as true.

    Core beliefs can be difficult to challenge in therapy because they can be so all encompassing and produce many negative automatic thoughts. The challenge is to first be able to identify them and then the work can become modifying behavior to change the underlying thought. Because they often develop in childhood, some automatic thoughts may have been internalized for years or even decades. These thoughts have never really been challenged until starting therapy and so this means suddenly unlearning a pattern of thinking that has been present for much of an individual’s life. Another reason they can be hard to modify is that some were at one time useful and valid. People can struggle to trust that their circumstances have changed and that they are now in a safe environment where the thought is no longer necessary or helpful.

    Core beliefs affect clients in a multitude of ways, from how they perceive situations to how they act in their environment. Therefore challenging and modifying negative core beliefs can have positive influences in these areas as well. Having more positive and accurate core beliefs can help a client have better self-esteem and self-efficacy. It can promote more positive interactions with other people around them and encourage them to act in more beneficial ways in their environment. The absence of negative thinking can also help to decrease the client’s overall stress level. The formation of strong positive core beliefs can also act as a safeguard to future stressors and events. When something aversive occurs in the client’s life they are protected by their firm, positive self-concepts and are better equipped to cope with the event without devolving into negative self-talk. Initial positive core beliefs are also useful starting points when beginning the process of addressing other negative core beliefs.

    Reply

    • Rachel Marsh
      Oct 23, 2022 @ 13:51:18

      Hello Rylee,

      I enjoyed reading your post! Specifically, I like how you discussed the benefit of understanding a client’s emotional response to address negative automatic thoughts. Clients are often unaware of the thoughts themselves, but are more aware of how these thoughts make them feel. For example, in earlier videos with Mark, we saw how he might have difficulty labeling his negative thoughts. In contrast, in the last video, Mark successfully identified the event of Jeff not going out for lunch with him as the source of his negative thought “Jeff doesn’t want to spend time with me”.
      Additionally, he was able to identify his subsequent emotions of sadness as well as his behaviors of rumination and isolation. Understanding this was also beneficial to help identify Mark’s core belief that he is unlikeable. Because of the identification of emotions, Dr. V and Mark were able to collaboratively work through Mark’s situation and address his underlying automatic negative thoughts about the event.
      Overall, great post! You made some insightful points.

      Reply

  11. Tayler Shea
    Oct 20, 2022 @ 13:25:31

    When Mark and his therapist were going through the Automatic Thought Record, I noticed Mark seemed to be experiencing a lot of sad emotions. It is important for them to go through these records so that Mark and the therapist can both understand how Mark’s emotions and thoughts are interacting. Mark had some really negative automatic thoughts surrounding having to go to lunch alone. Mark believes that when people are unable to meet with him that they do not value his friendship and that they do not think he is important. Mark is automatically thinking negative thoughts about himself and his worth in these situations. I think that having Mark analyze the factual information or evidence that supports his automatic thoughts would help him see the lack of validity of these thoughts. This technique is used to show the client that their thoughts contradict the evidence of the situation. I would also encourage Mark to weigh the pros and cons of believing his automatic thoughts vs the pros and cons of if he changed his thinking patterns. This will hopefully encourage the client to recognize the harmful impact that these thoughts have on his day-to-day functioning. I think this would help Mark understand that if he changes his thinking patterns, his emotions during certain situations would be increased and then he would experience positive behavior change as well.

    Negative core beliefs are a maladaptive way of thinking. Many times, core beliefs are what determine the type of automatic thoughts that the client may have. Negative automatic thoughts are typically an external representation of internal negative core beliefs. Core beliefs must be investigated to identify what is causing the client’s distress. These negative core beliefs typically develop as a child is developing as a reaction to interactions that they have with others and themselves. Significant people or events in a child’s life in conjunction with genetic factors typically influence the type of core beliefs that will develop. Core beliefs can be difficult to modify in therapy because the client has lived with them throughout their entire life and believes them to be true. At one time, the negative core belief was likely developed with an adaptive function to the client. The client is biased toward information that supports their beliefs and often does not recognize information that does not support their belief. The client often believes that these thoughts are true because oftentimes, there as aspects of the core belief that either is currently valid or at one point was valid. There are three categories of negative core beliefs: Helplessness, Worthlessness, and Unlovability. There are unique skills that can be used to modify core beliefs. Additionally, before modifying the belief the therapist must investigate the situation by using skills such as psychoeducation, understanding the core belief, identifying the client’s belief, and then identifying and modifying the belief. Because the client is biased in their belief, they are often very hard to modify. It is crucial that the therapist modify negative core beliefs so that the client can experience less negative automatic thoughts and experience less overall emotional distress.

    Reply

    • Tuyen Phung
      Oct 21, 2022 @ 08:30:45

      Hi Tayler,
      I like the way you use to help Mark modify his negative automatic thoughts, including finding evidence against his thoughts and the pros and cons of believing his automatic thought. Obviously, his belief in automatic thought caused him more negative impacts than positive ones. However, depressed people are less likely to view positive perspectives of an event. They can describe the positive outcome of alternative explanations, but when they are out of therapy and in contact with real situations, they tend to be back to their previous condition. Therefore, I think that it is necessary to emphasize the consequences of negative automatic thoughts throughout the process of the treatment until they practice it as routine. This takes time and much effort during therapy.

      Reply

    • Amanda Bara
      Oct 21, 2022 @ 11:57:40

      Hi Tayler! I thought your discussion this week was very insightful. One thing that you highlighted was making a pros and cons list of believing his thoughts. This is something I never really considered but in Mark’s case it could be helpful in pulling apart the validity of his thoughts. You explored a lot of different techniques and I enjoyed reading your post. Nice job!

      Reply

  12. Sarah Kendrick
    Oct 20, 2022 @ 14:13:44

    In the client’s response to the outcome, they identified feeling bad, sad, and guilty. While they still went out to lunch without their friend, they still felt isolated and guilty for having done so. Mark’s response to the outcome is helpful to understanding his distress as this further helped to identify a core belief of Mark’s – that he is unlikable. In identifying this belief, Mark can work towards changing this pattern of thinking so as to hopefully decrease his negative emotions.

    Among other techniques, two Socratic techniques that may be effective in modifying mark’s negative automatic thoughts could be examining the evidence and separating self from negative automatic thoughts. In evaluating the evidence, we would help Mark determine if the negative automatic thought is valid or not. In regards to his friendship with Jeff and whether he is liked by him or not, we would evaluate things such as how often they spend time together, have they spent time together before, has Jeff actually made statements about not liking Mark, etc. Perhaps there could be evidence to suggest that Jeff’s interest has faded but not that Mark is inherently unlikable. Regardless, it is important to help Mark establish the validity of his belief to determine if we should continue modifying his thoughts or if we should work towards coping with the validity of the thoughts. In separating self from negative automatic thoughts, I wonder that if due to Mark’s personalization of situations that it may be beneficial for him to consider what he would tell a friend or family member about their similar thoughts. If Mark does indeed offer an alternative interpretation of the event that may be beneficial to his situation, perhaps this could be addressed and proposed to him.

    Core beliefs typically develop earlier in childhood, though can develop later whether through significant interactions with highly regarded individuals, significant life events, or through genetic and biological vulnerability. Intense and unmanageable psychological distress along with already having or being predisposed to negative core beliefs can have a significant impact on individuals. Core beliefs can be difficult to modify in therapy as these do tend to develop very early in someone’s life as well as that these are persistent thoughts and are a pattern that the individuals truly believe is valid. Individuals may better identify that “regular” negative automatic thoughts are thoughts associated with unpleasant emotions and that their reflexive nature might help identify that the thoughts are not necessarily valid – that is to say that these may not necessarily be constant similar thoughts in which the individual wholly believes in the general idea that they are unlovable or worthless etc. Core beliefs are, well, at a person’s core and it is difficult to modify a thought that someone completely believes in, especially when they do not accept evidence to the contrary. In modifying these core beliefs though, individuals will experience a decrease in their distress as well as may further respond more appropriately to future stressors. The better the understanding of the core beliefs, the better the therapeutic relationship as interventions can now be more effective as both the client and therapist have a more thorough understanding of why the individual responds the way that they do based upon their core beliefs. Once negative core beliefs are addressed, the focus can turn towards improving the positive core beliefs so that the individual can experience more positive and adaptive responses (without neglecting that work will still need to be done on negative beliefs as they may never fully stop believing in them).

    Reply

    • Amanda Bara
      Oct 21, 2022 @ 11:55:29

      Sarah,
      I really enjoyed reading your response to this discussion. I like the socratic techniques that you mentioned and how they could be helpful in discussing the validity of Mark’s thoughts. I like how you pointed out how these emotions and patterns that Mark identifies brings to light the core belief of being unlikable. It is important that this core belief be explored through socratic techniques so Mark can understand the reality of this thinking. Nice job!

      Reply

  13. Teresia Maina
    Oct 20, 2022 @ 15:24:35

    Exploring clients emotionally and cognitively is helpful in understanding how their negative automatic thoughts are develop, causing the client distress. In Mark’s case, he asked his friend Jeff to lunch, and Jeff declined the invitation. This leads to Mark thinking that Jeff doesn’t like him and feeling hurt/sad. Even though he went to lunch by himself, he felts rejected and guilty that he was by himself. Understanding emotions and cognitions can help in understanding how distressing negative automatic thoughts are and using the information learned to decide whether they are at a point to challenge those thoughts. Effective Socratic techniques to modify his negative thoughts would be exploring what evidence he has that would support or contradict his thoughts and whether there is an alternative explanation for the outcome. This could help Mark explore if there are other scenarios where Jeff did take pleasure in hanging out with him and whether Jeff canceling on their plans is a regular occurrence. Exploring alternative outcomes can help Mark think of other theories as to why Jeff said “no”, like he had other lunch plans etc.

    Core beliefs develop from childhood through teenage years, even adulthood. Our interaction with individuals, significant life events, and biological vulnerability influence them. Influential individuals include parents, teachers, and peers, and life events include both traumatic and successes. Biological vulnerability refers to specific skills, temperament, and intelligence. It can be challenging to modify core beliefs in therapy. Some of our core beliefs are deep-rooted and learned from an early age and have been with us for a long time, and changing those will be a challenge. Individuals also tend to believe information that supports their negative core beliefs strengthening that belief. Modifying core beliefs can change how clients view the world and themselves. It can also influence the client’s maladaptive thoughts.

    Reply

    • Tayler Shea
      Oct 20, 2022 @ 21:05:34

      Hi Teresia,

      Great response this week. I like how you described the importance of childhood, teenage years, AND adulthood all playing a valuable role in the development of core beliefs. It’s interesting how responses, situations, or events may seem so small to one person but could leave a lasting impact on another. I like how you wrote that core beliefs are deep-rooted and very hard to change due to the client believing these beliefs. I think it is really important to help our clients work through their negative core beliefs so that we can help our clients experience less emotional distress. This can definitely be challenging when our clients have such a firm belief. Great response!

      Reply

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Adam M. Volungis, PhD, LMHC

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