Topic 2: Cognitive Theories {by 9/3}

There are three readings due this week (Beck, A. T.; Beck, J. S.; Volungis).  For this discussion, share at least two thoughts: (1) What is your understanding of Lazarus’ and Folkman’s conceptualization of cognitive appraisal and coping in relation to CBT?  (2) What are your initial impressions in your ability to understand and consistently apply the basic principles of CBT as a therapist?   (I realize many of you do not yet have any therapy experience.  However, now is a good time to start thinking about being a CBT therapist.  Many of you will be starting your practicum this summer!)

 

Your original post should be posted by the beginning of class 9/3.  Have your two replies posted no later than 9/5.  *Please remember to click the “reply” button when posting a reply.  This makes it easier for the reader to follow the blog postings.

28 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Allie Supernor
    Aug 30, 2020 @ 10:32:03

    (1) Lazarus and Folkman explain cognitive appraisal to be a mediator between an event and the way one responds. This appraisal requires mental activity involving judgment, discrimination, and action, based on experience. There are two rounds of appraisal: primary and secondary appraisal. First is primary appraisal, and it is determining if the event is stressful and or relevant to the individual. As Dr. V says, “Am I in trouble? Or Can I benefit from it and in what ways?” During this appraisal a decision is made whether the event is irrelevant, benign-positive or stressful. If the event is irrelevant there is nothing to be gained or lost. If the event is deemed benign-positive it means that the outcome of the event is positive, and we should give it attention because one can gain from it. Lastly, if the event is stressful it has to be determined whether the event will pose a threat, cause harm or loss, or presents a challenge. Secondary appraisal involves one’s evaluation of their resources and or options for coping. As Dr. V says, “what, if anything can be done about it?” Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptualization of cognitive appraisal plays a big role in coping in relation to modern-day CBT. Cognitive appraisal is essentially what a person perceives to be stressful. In maladaptive thoughts, which we all have, one may interpret an event to be stressful when it is not. CBT can be really incredibly helpful in exploring this thought process and finding and addressing the maladaptive thoughts. Furthermore, maybe one person interprets the event correctly in primary appraisal, but misinterprets their ability to cope with it, in secondary appraisal. That is another place that CBT can helpful in recognizing effective coping through homework assignments.
    (2) My initial impressions in understanding the foundation of CBT is strong for an early helper. That being said, I do believe there are a lot of areas that have yet to be uncovered. The bulk of my understanding about CBT and the skills utilized in CBT comes from Dr. Stoner’s Counseling Principles and Practices course. Additionally, she used Hill’s Helping Stages text to guide the course. I have a strong understanding of all the goals in each of Hill’s three stages. I feel like I am able to execute many of the techniques fairly well. I think I will only improve my skills through our coursework and supervision in my early clinician jobs.

    Reply

    • Haley Scola
      Sep 02, 2020 @ 17:14:32

      Allie,
      I think you have a great understanding of Lazurus and Folkman’s cognitive appraisal and coping concepts. When you related it back to CBT I thought you did a really great job at explaining how although one may perceive a situation as stressful doesn’t necessarily mean that that’s the reality. You also made a great point about even if the individual did interpret the situation appropriately, they can still misinterpret their ability to cope. I think of someone who is experiencing a loss and deems it stressful but believes they are incapable of coping or has low self-efficacy. Additionally, I also said how Dr. Stoner’s class really helped and provided me which a lot of skills that I needed. The small group practices and final also really helped by being able to actually practice the skills.

      Reply

    • Francesca DePergola
      Sep 02, 2020 @ 19:32:54

      Hey Allie,
      I really enjoyed reading your thorough answer to question one. Specifically, I like how you mention how Folkman and Lazarus’ cognitive appraisal relates to CBT. I like the example you use and mentioning the utilization of homework. I think that example made it easier to understand and put into perspective as it can be confusing where the problem lies with a client sometimes.
      I agreed with your second answer as I mentioned Professor Stoner’s class as well. I think that class was very influential in my early understandings of what CBT is and how it can be effective. I too, feel as if the way to improve my skills will definitely come from more coursework and experience in future internships and jobs!

      Reply

    • Christopher LePage
      Sep 03, 2020 @ 11:39:39

      Hi Allie,
      I really liked how clearly you laid out your explanation for the first question, specifically how at the end you state that someone may be able to recognize a primary appraisal, but it does not mean they have the proper coping mechanisms to alleviate their stress. I also enjoyed Dr. Stoner’s class, as I feel the rehearsal of using the CBT principles was extremely helpful, and made me feel more confident in using these tools going forward.

      Reply

  2. Madi
    Sep 01, 2020 @ 17:18:23

    1. Lazarus’ and Folkman’s understand cognitive appraisal as appraising the situation, which means judging the situation which is affect my previous experiences. In cognitive appraisal one is evaluating the specific situation. There are three types of appraisals which are primary, secondary, and reappraisal. Primary appraisal asked the question “Am I in trouble or being benefited, now or in the future?” In this appraisal one is looking at if it is irrelevant, benign-positive, or stressful. An irrelevant event then it does not affect the person’s well-being. A benign-positive event means that the outcome of the event is positive meaning that in enhances the person. A stressful event can be three different things harm, threat or challenge. A stressful event that involves harm means that damage has happened. A stressful event that involved threat means that harm is anticipated but ha snot yet occurred. A stressful event that involves challenge means that there is potential of gain or growth. Secondary appraisal asks the question if anything can be done. Secondary appraisal is the coping options to the primary appraisal. Reappraisal is just another appraisal of the event. It is the secondary and reappraisal that have its connection to CBT. It is understanding what is going around us, how we react to it and implementing effective coping skills. CBT involves constant reappraisal to understand one’s conditions and effective coping mechanisms.
    2. I find that I already use the basic principles of CBT as a residential counselor in the group home that it work at. I help client with symptoms management, emotion focused coping, problem-focused coping, and reviewing automatic thoughts.

    Reply

    • Haley Scola
      Sep 02, 2020 @ 17:19:24

      Madi,
      I liked how you considered reappraisal as one of the types of appraisal because when I was answering I didn’t think to do that. I think you explained stressful appraisals very well and gave a very detailed answer. I also thought it was very helpful that you defined everything in a short but sweet way. For example, you said “secondary appraisal asks the question if anything can be done”. You have a really nice way of explaining things in a simplistic manner. It’s great that you’re so confident in your abilities and that you practice your skills often. I also work in a residential but I find it hard to use CBT skills as often as I’d like because my work uses a different treatment approach.

      Reply

    • Francesca DePergola
      Sep 02, 2020 @ 19:23:54

      Hi Madi,
      I think you give a clear and concise answer to question one and I thought it was interesting that you included reappraisal which I forgot to mention in my post. Reappraisal is definitely important to mention because a changed appraisal is just as important as the primary and secondary appraisals. For a reappraisal to occur there was new information given to the individual from the environment. The modification of the appraisal is important to understand in relating to CBT because this could give a clue to the counselor how the client thinks, feels, and behaves when handling this new information.
      I also think it is very cool that you are actively using some of the basic principles of CBT as a residential counselor!

      Reply

  3. Haley Scola
    Sep 02, 2020 @ 17:06:47

    1. My understanding of Lazarus’ and Folkman’s conceptualizations of cognitive appraisal is that it’s a mediator between an event and a response. The individual assesses an emotional situation and evaluates how the event will affect them by interpreting the various aspects of the event, and arrives at a response based on that interpretation. This requires mental activity involving judgment, discrimination, and choice of activity which are all based on past experiences. The two types of cognitive appraisals are primary and secondary. Primary appraisal is the individual’s initial perception of the situation in terms of 1. if the situation is benefiting or hindering, 2. Is it effecting me now or in the future, and 3. In what way? Based on this appraisal they are interpreted as irrelevant, benign-positive, or stressful. An irrelevant appraisal is when the encounter with the environment carries no implication for the person’s well-being. A benign-positive is when the outcome is perceived as positive (that it enhances or preserves the person’s well-being or promises to do so). While a stressful appraisal is when the encounter with the environment carries potential harm, threat, or challenge. Secondary appraisal comes into play when the individual has perceived the situation as stressful. It is an evaluation if anything can be done to overcome or prevent harm from the threat, and/or they can improve the prospects for benefit. Additionally, secondary takes coping options into account that will accomplish what it is supposed to, and the likelihood that one can apply a particular strategy or set of strategies effectively. Secondary appraisal of coping options and primary appraisals of what is at stake interact with each other in shaping the degree of stress and the strength and quality of the emotional reaction. Coping is an individual’s constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as hindering or exceeding the person’s resources. The three key features of coping are process oriented which focuses on what is actually though and done in the stressful encounter; contextual which considers the appraisal of the demands during the stressor and available resources; and adaptive which a shifting process from one form of coping to another as the status of the person-environment relationship changes. This relates to CBT because an appraisal that is seen as stressful can also be called maladaptive thoughts. These thoughts occur in everyone and CBT focuses on understanding these thoughts and learning adaptive ways to change them. Coping also relates because coping skills can be learned to adaptively respond and manage these maladaptive thoughts.
    2. My initial impressions in my ability to understand and consistently apply the basic principles of CBT as a therapist are decent at this point. I definitely understand the basic principles but I haven’t had much opportunity to practice these skills and actually apply them. During 504 I learned a lot using Hill’s helping stages and I have a firm understanding of the three stages and skills in each. I’m also taking 713 right now with almost all my classmates already having their internship which is very intimidating and has made me second guess my ability to apply these skills since they all have a lot of experience. I do try to practice my skills as a residential counselor but doing day-to-day activities for 40+ hours a week with the kids is much different than an hour session of therapy.

    Reply

    • Alison Kahn
      Sep 02, 2020 @ 21:27:34

      Haley,

      I think your explanation of Lazarus’ and Folkman’s conceptualization of cognitive appraisal and coping was super thorough and informative. Regarding your comfortability with CBT, I totally agree with you that in 504 Dr. Stoner taught us so much about how to appropriately utilize CBT in counseling sessions. I think that being on “the floor” as a res counselor is SO different than having a structured therapy session (I am in the same boat). That said, I bet that we have been able to successfully use cognitive behavioral techniques with our clients en vivo, which is great practice for when we do our internships!

      Reply

  4. Francesca DePergola
    Sep 02, 2020 @ 17:54:33

    (1) What is your understanding of Lazarus’ and Folkman’s conceptualization of cognitive appraisal and coping in relation to CBT?
    Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptualization of cognitive appraisal is what occurs between the event and response that requires judgment, discrimination, choice of activity which is based on past experiences. This process occurs so that it can evaluate whether a situation in an individual’s environment is relevant to a person’s well-being and later assess in which ways. There is primary and secondary appraisal which have different qualities. Primary appraisal is assessing whether the person is in trouble or being benefitted and then later, in which ways. There is irrelevant, benign-positive, stressful-harm/loss, stressful-threat, and stressful-challenge. The two that are important to emphasize are the stressful-threat and stressful-challenge. These two are important because the stressful threat consists of the harms or losses that have not yet taken place but are anticipated; emotions such as fear, anxiety, and sometimes anger are within this type of primary appraisal. The second key type is stressful-challenge which focuses on the potential for gain or growth inherent to encounters characterized as positive; emotions such as eagerness, excitement, and exhilaration are within this type. Secondary appraisal has to do with what can be done about it, if anything can be, to overcome or prevent harm from threat and or improve areas to benefit from it. Coping options are critical within this type of appraisal. Secondary appraisals of coping options and primary appraisals of what is at risk interact with each other in how stressed, how strong, and the quality of how one emotionally reacts. This relates to cognitive behavioral therapy because CBT looks closely at thought patterns, especially maladaptive ones, to understand them and change them in more adaptable fashions. By understanding cognitive appraisal, one can see where the client needs help from the counselor to progress and alleviate some of that maladaptive thinking.

    (2) What are your initial impressions in your ability to understand and consistently apply the basic principles of CBT as a therapist?
    My initial impressions in my ability to understand and consistently apply the basic principles of CBT as a therapist are limited at this point. As others above have mentioned, we all got a grip on Hill’s three stages in the principles and practices of counseling course. This course allowed most of us to practice some skills commonly used in CBT. I enjoyed that class immensely, not only understanding the reasoning behind the skills but also utilizing them with friends and family through every day “venting sessions” and so on. I think there is a lot more for me to learn and I am very eager for that.

    Reply

    • Alison Kahn
      Sep 02, 2020 @ 21:37:14

      Francesca,

      I really like how you tied the conceptualizations of Lazarus and Folkman into CBT in your discussion post. Specifically, I like how you emphasized understanding maladaptive thought patterns in order to change or replace such thought patterns with more adaptive ones. I agree that it is super important to understand the way a client appraises situations in order to determine whether he or she needs support in his or her ability to accurately appraise a situation, or if the problem lies in their ability to respond (cope) to a situation that they appraise as dangerous or threatening.

      Reply

    • Christopher LePage
      Sep 03, 2020 @ 11:36:00

      Hi Francesca, I like how you went into depth about primary appraisals specifically about their key components. With primary appraisals it is important to show that the most common ones we see are stressful-threat and stressful-challenge. These concepts are vastly different and are processed in different ways, so it is important to note how to distinguish these two when working with a client. I also liked how you mentioned Hill’s three stages, as they have helped me as well with incorporating CBT principles within counseling sessions!

      Reply

    • Madi
      Sep 03, 2020 @ 14:07:36

      Francesca,
      I thought your explanation of Lazarus and Folkman’s conception of cognition appraisal was clear and precise. I liked how you began by a general explanation. I thought your explanation of primary and secondary appraisal shows a clear understanding.

      Reply

    • Allie Supernor
      Sep 03, 2020 @ 17:32:12

      Hey Francesca, I liked your explanation of each primary and secondary appraisal. I think you did a really nice job differentiating one from another. Additionally, I enjoyed how you mentioned metacognition as a major component of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Your connection to Carl Rogers made your post so unique!

      Reply

  5. Eileen Kinnane
    Sep 02, 2020 @ 19:21:31

    (1) Lazarus’ and Folkman’s conceptualization of cognitive appraisal can be understood as a mediator between an event and how an individual responds to the event. When an event occurs, the individual draws from past experiences and uses that to appraise what is happening. Then by relying on judgement, discrimination, and choice of activity, the individual produces a response. There are two types of cognitive appraisals: primary and secondary. Primary appraisals determine whether an event is dangerous to the individual, and whether the event is relevant. Following this, the individual concludes if the event is irrelevant, benign-positive, or stressful. If the event is irrelevant, it means that it does not pertain to the individual at all and will not effect them. If the event is benign positive, it means that the individual should pay attention to the event, as it could benefit them. If the event is stressful, it means that the event could potentially harm, challenge, or threaten the individual. A secondary appraisal examines the potential options for coping with the event. It looks at what can be done, if anything can be done at all. This cognitive appraisal has a large impact on coping in relation to CBT. An individual may have maladaptive thoughts, and perceive an event to be stressful when it actually might not be stressful at all. In CBT, it’s important to address those maladaptive thoughts and explore why an individual may be feeling stressed.

    (2) My impressions of my ability to understand and consistently apply the basic principles of CBT as a therapist seem to change quite often. There are times when I feel confident in my journey of becoming a therapist and ensuring that I am consistently applying all that I learn when it comes time to put my skills into practice. I feel that I am doing as much practice as I can given that I currently work in a non-clinical setting. I do my best to practice the little things (posture, active listening, “mmhmms”, open ended questions, etc.), so when I finally switch to a clinical setting, I am not playing as much catch up as I thought I would. There are also times where I worry about my ability to carry out the skills of practicing and applying CBT. Since I am taking a longer time than expected to complete this program, I sometimes worry about forgetting important aspects that I’ve learned in previous classes. While I know this is a worry I have now, I know that I learn by doing, and once I get into my practicum and internship, I will be able to apply these skills more and get lots of practice in before graduating.

    Reply

    • Selene Anaya
      Sep 03, 2020 @ 12:32:06

      Hey Eileen! I really like how you tied the conceptualization of Lazarus and Folkman to the importance of CBT. Identifying maladaptive thoughts is probably one of the most important parts of CBT. I wanted to respond to your post because I really resonated with your response to the second question. I also feel like my impression of my ability to apply the principles of CBT as a therapist changes often. In PSY 600, as I was reading everything, the techniques seemed very simple and easy to do. However, as soon as I had to actually use the skills, it was a lot harder than I had thought. As the semester went on with more practice, it eventually became a lot easier. I also found myself applying the little skills that I learned in my everyday life outside of class which was cool to notice as well. Seeing the progress that I made as well as my classmates was a cool experience so I am excited to see my skills and knowledge develop after this course!

      Reply

  6. Alison Kahn
    Sep 02, 2020 @ 21:16:16

    1) Lazarus and Folkman conceptualize cognitive appraisal as a kind of a “negotiation” that takes place between an event that an individual experiences and his or her response to sed event. This requires cognitive activity (i.e., judgement of an event, determination of threat level, and what response is warranted). According to Lazarus and Folkman, cognitive appraisal is broken down into two categories; primary and secondary. Primary appraisal refers to when an individual assesses the nature of the event (i.e., “is this bad? Am I in trouble? Is this irrelevant? Is this positive?”) Secondary refers to the follow up to an event (i.e., “what can be done? If this is positive, what can I do to enhance the benefits of this event? What are my coping options? What will the outcome be?”) Coping refers to an individual’s reaction to an event. Coping can be emotion-focused (i.e., an individual regulates his or her emotional response to a problem typically as a result of a problem that is perceived as unchangeable), or problem-focused (i.e., an individual changes something in his or her environment and/or his or her relationship to the environment typically as a result of a problem that is perceived as changeable by the individual). According to Lazarus and Folkman, these coping strategies are often used simultaneously. These concepts are related to CBT in that CBT is a solution-focused therapy that targets maladaptive cognitive and behavioral patterns and attempts to replace those patterns with more adaptive ones as well as identify adaptive coping strategies when an individual is faced with a situation that he or she deems threatening.
    2) My initial impression of CBT and my ability to understand/apply it as a therapist is fairly confident. In my current role as a program director, I am often working with clients to identify adaptive coping skills (in order to decrease safety-interfering behaviors and replace ingrained maladaptive coping strategies). That said, I am eager to learn about specific coping strategies in CBT and expand my understanding of automatic thoughts/beliefs.

    Reply

    • Selene Anaya
      Sep 03, 2020 @ 12:42:20

      Hey Alison! Your response to the first question was very informative and to the point. I like how you included the questions that were given in our lecture to help guide your description. I look up to your confidence in the application of these techniques and your understanding of CBT! I know with time and experience, my confidence will get there soon. I think it is also super cool that you have experience both before and after learning more about the specific techniques. It is possible you might notice a difference which would be an interesting experience. I look forward to learning more in this class as well (more specifically CBT skills and techniques) and hopefully hearing some of your real life experiences in class!

      Reply

    • Brigitte Manseau
      Sep 05, 2020 @ 20:37:26

      Hi Alison,
      Your clear explanation of how Lazarus’ and Folkman’s conceptualization relates to CBT shows how well you understand the material. I like how you mentioned that CBT is solution-focused which ties into problem-focused coping. As for the second question, your experience from work sounds like it has and will continue to strengthen your skill set. I look forward to hearing more about your experiences as the semester goes on!

      Reply

  7. Selene Anaya
    Sep 02, 2020 @ 21:26:50

    1. When we are responding to an event, there is a middle event that is often consciously overlooked that requires judgment, discrimination, and often a choice (what or what not to do) which then leads to our response. Lazarus and Folkman name this process as cognitive appraisal. This process is what allows us, as individuals, to evaluate whether the event that is encountered is relevant to us, and if it is, how? Lazarus and Folkman explained that there are 3 types of appraisals; primary, secondary, and reappraisals. Primary appraisal assesses all parts of the event, including if the individual is in trouble or not, when the event might happen, and how. Within primary appraisals, there are three kinds. One is an irrelevant primary appraisal which is when the event has no impact on the individual. The event is perceived as something that the individual will not lose or gain from during the transaction. Another type of appraisal is benign-positive, meaning that the event is perceived as being able to enhance the individual’s well-being or there is something to be gained from it. The last type of appraisal is stressful, which then has three types. Harm/loss is when damage has already been done either physically or psychologically and there is also a potential that more harm can come in the future. The other two more important stressful appraisals are stressful-threat and stressful-challenge. A stressful-threat is best described as anticipating that something negative is going to occur. Typically, many negative unpleasant emotions come from this stressful appraisal such as anger, fear, and anxiety. This type of appraisal is normal to have and can even be helpful in some situations, but too much can become concerning. A stressful-challenge is also anticipated, but it is perceived as an encounter that will provide an opportunity for growth. It is characterized by more pleasant emotions such as excitement and eagerness. Secondary appraisal is when the individual assesses if anything, and if so, what can be done about the situation. This is the appraisal that takes into account which coping mechanisms can be applied to the situation to either overcome or prevent harm or utilize skills to possibly gain more from an experience. Reappraisal is an appraisal that is changed as new information is gathered from the environment. It allows us to learn or not learn from our mistakes and we can modify the approach used in the future. There are also two types of coping, which are problem-focused and emotion-focused. This all heavily relates to what I know about CBT because coping with and/or learning appropriate coping mechanisms is a big part of CBT. Our perceptions of situations directly impact our response. Not only do these concepts relate to CBT from the patient’s side, but as therapists, it is important to assess the accuracy of the individual’s appraisal, if they are using the appropriate coping techniques, and from there we can identify if anything needs to be done differently to enhance or make the responses more adaptive.
    2. I have always had a hard time ~thinking~ about how I use skills that I learn in class and apply it to what I do. That may not make sense, but for example, in undergrad for my practicum, I didn’t realize that I applied all of what I learned in my practice until I took the time to reflect on it. I think the same will happen in my practice with CBT. I believe this mostly because what I am learning seems “common-sensical” and already like I kind of already knew what is going on and what would make sense to be most effective for helping another individual. For as long as I can remember, I have always knew the importance of perspective. Now that I am learning more specifically about the terminology associated with CBT and more in-depth about what CBT is, I know it will help my practice a lot, but like I said before it is kind of hard for me to know until I actually do it. That being said, I am very excited for practicum because I know I am a hands-on learner, so being able to apply these skills in practice and learn through experience will be extremely helpful for solidifying my application and understanding of CBT skills. PSY 600 really made me realize how much practice and application can help with understanding.

    Reply

    • Madi
      Sep 03, 2020 @ 14:11:03

      Selene,
      I liked how you started off your post by discussing judgment and choice, I feel that this is a very important element to the point that Folkman and Lazarus is trying to make. I also thought you did a great job at explaining primary, secondary, and reappraisal. In response to the second question, I would say that it fantastic that you know the importance of perspective, but clients typically do not have this ability. I think it is important to remember not everyone comes to the table with the same set of tools, which is especially true when it comes to clients.

      Reply

    • Eileen Kinnane
      Sep 03, 2020 @ 17:42:27

      Hi Selene! In response to your second answer, I totally agree! I sometimes think that I forget about the skills I’ve learned and how I apply them because I’m simply applying them more frequently. Sometimes they become like second nature, and I don’t know that I’m doing it when I’m doing it. It’ll really be interesting to see how our skills develop once we’ve graduated.

      Reply

    • Brigitte Manseau
      Sep 05, 2020 @ 20:28:51

      Hi Selene,
      I like that you clarified how reappraisal allows individuals to either learn or not learn from previous blunders. It’s important to point out since reappraisal may not drastically differ from the initial appraisal. In terms of the second question, I like how you mentioned that you may utilize various skills without realizing it. It’s interesting how we can apply various concepts without really thinking about it. I tend to be apprehensive about my skill set until I am able to put it in action. I then realize how much knowledge I have retained and how I can successfully apply it. I agree, getting experience and continuing to learn through practicum will help reinforce our skills.

      Reply

  8. Christopher LePage
    Sep 03, 2020 @ 11:29:56

    1) Based off of Lazarus’ and Folkman’s idea of cognitive appraisal, I think cognitive appraisal is about being the mediator between the event and the response. In order to do this, you have to be able to involve judgment, discrimination, and choice of activity based on past experiences. It is also important to process whether the encounter is relevant to your well-being. In regard to appraisal, there are two: primary and secondary. With primary appraisal, you are assessing the nature of the event, and whether it is stressful or relevant to the individual. You can do this by assessing whether due to the event, if you are in trouble, or does it benefit you, and in what way does it do this. With secondary appraisal, you are looking at the aftermath of the event. Here, you look at what can be done to overcome a threat, or how can you improve on benefiting from the event. Cognitive appraisal is all how how we process and evaluate events, that may be stressful to you as an individual. Where this helps with coping and CBT, is that CBT helps to alleviate some of this stress that you may be encountering from an event. One of the ways CBT helps with this, is by recognizing these maladaptive thoughts and stressors, and tries to come up with different ways to cope with these events.
    2) In terms of my own personal skills for CBT, I think they have improved over time but are still limited. Just this past semester I was taking PSY 600, with Professor Stoner and we were able to learn about the different stages in counseling, and how to apply different principles of CBT within the counseling sessions. The class was extremely helpful to me, and I have even noticed that I have brought some of these techniques taught to us in my own place of work.

    Reply

    • Allie Supernor
      Sep 03, 2020 @ 17:34:58

      Hi Chris! I think you did a really nice job conceptualizing primary and secondary appraisal. You had a nice connection to CBT when you spoke about addressing maladaptive thoughts. I tried to touch upon that, too. I believe CBT can be utilized in finding where the maladpative thought lies, if that makes sense. Does the maladaptive thinking happen in primary appraisal? Or does it take place in secondary appraisal when thinking about coping?

      Reply

  9. Brigitte Manseau
    Sep 03, 2020 @ 14:08:51

    1. Lazarus’ and Folkman’s view of cognitive appraisal is that it is a mediator between the event and the response. Cognitive appraisal is the process of assessing whether a certain encounter with the environment is relevant to his or her well-being, and if so, in what ways. There are two types of appraisal: primary and secondary. Primary appraisal involves evaluation of whether the individual has anything at risk in the encounter. There are three kinds of primary appraisal: irrelevant, benign-positive, and stressful. Irrelevant appraisal means the encounter has no benefit or loss. Benign-positive appraisal means the perceived outcome is positive and enhances the person’s well-being. There are three kinds of stressful appraisal: harm/loss, threat, and challenge. Stressful-threat and stressful-challenge are important to highlight. A stressful-threat means the individual anticipates harm or losses. It involves unpleasant emotions such as anxiety, fear, and anger. A stressful-challenge means the individual focuses on the potential to gain or grow from the encounter. It involves pleasant emotions such as eagerness, exhilaration, and excitement. Secondary appraisal is when an individual evaluates what can be done, if anything, to overcome or prevent a threat or to improve potential benefits. Reappraisals are modified versions of a previous appraisal due to new information from the environment. Coping is an individual’s efforts to manage certain external or internal demands that are appraised as too challenging. Cognitive appraisal and coping are deeply connected to CBT. By understanding how someone appraises situations, CBT can help identify the inaccurate perceptions and possibly change how an individual appraises a situation. An individual who has maladaptive thoughts and behaviors may perceive a threat correctly, but does not cope well. CBT can help identify the individual’s maladaptive coping skills and introduce effective coping skills.

    2. My impression of my ability to understand and consistently apply the basic principles of CBT as a therapist is that I am fair. As a beginner, I have an adequate grasp on the basics of CBT. I learn best through experience, so I am a little nervous about my ability to apply the principles since I have zero experience. I believe as the semester goes on and the concepts are further reinforced in my mind I will become more confident.

    Reply

    • Eileen Kinnane
      Sep 03, 2020 @ 17:45:36

      Hi Brigitte! I really enjoyed reading about your explantations of stressful-threat and stressful-challenge. You wrote it out in a way that’s easy to understand and interesting to read! I can also resonate with your feelings on applying skills in CBT. It’s really hard without experience but as we continue to learn and practice it will all get easier!

      Reply

  10. Trey Powers
    Sep 03, 2020 @ 15:22:03

    1.
    Lazarus and Folkman generated the idea of cognitive appraisal — a concept that holds great significance to the therapy process. As has been stated many times throughout the readings, an individual’s reaction is not based on the situation itself, but rather on their perception and evaluation of the situation. It is here that cognitive appraisal comes into play. Two types of appraisal exist: primary and secondary. With primary appraisal, an individual is exposed to a situation or stimulus and is forced to determine the nature of their experience. In other words, the individual must determine whether the situation is potentially dangerous or beneficial to them. Three possible determinations may be made as a result of this primary assessment. A situation can be determined as being irrelevant, benign-positive, or stressful. If a situation is determined to be irreverent, it is viewed by the individual as being neither dangerous nor stressful, and therefore in need of no significant response or action. If a situation is determined to be benign-positive, it is viewed as being potentially beneficial to the individual, and action should be taken to capitalize on the situation. Should the situation be appraised as stressful, the individual interprets that it has the potential to cause some sort of harm or distress, which should be addressed or avoided. Once the situation is primarily appraised, secondary appraisal becomes the concern. Secondary appraisal involves determining specifically what, based on the primary appraisal, should be done to address the situation at hand.

    This idea is important to CBT because it involves potentially illogical or incorrect perceptions of reality, which can in turn influence the behavior or emotional state of an individual. Should an individual constantly interpret situations as being stressful or dangerous, they may live in constant fear, either avoiding situations that cause the fear, or experiencing intense anxiety while struggling to weather the situation. CBT identifies these incongruous thoughts and reactions by helping the individual to acknowledge the fallacy in their thought process. Over time, and through numerous examples of the individual’s incorrect thoughts being proven wrong in various situations, the individual learns that they are appraising situations incorrectly, and instead becomes able to appraise more accurately, therefore allowing them to function more adaptively.

    2.
    Outside of practicing in Counseling class last semester, I do not yet have any experience with utilizing CBT. I am, however, relatively confident that I understand the basic concepts, and would be able to, albeit tentatively, apply them in practice. From my previous education, I am quite familiar with the concept of metacognition, which seems to be a major element of CBT. Thinking about how you think is an essential part of identifying flaws or discrepancies in one’s thought pattern, and I am confident that I will be able to engage in metacognition with individuals in order to help them reach a more accurate perception of reality. I also love Carl Rogers, many of whose techniques are utilized in CBT for the establishment of rapport and the maintenance of unconditional positive regard. I feel as though these skills come to me rather easily, and hope that I will therefore be able to connect with clients quickly upon first meeting and beginning therapy with them.

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Adam M. Volungis, PhD, LMHC

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