Topic 1: Social Learning & Cognitive Theories {by 9/9}

There were multiple readings due last week (Bandura) and this week (Ellis & Harper; Meichenbaum; Lazarus & Folkman).  For this discussion, share at least three thoughts: (1) In your own words, explain your understanding of Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy?  How are these constructs related to CBT?  (2) What are a couple examples of how Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is both similar to CBT and different from CBT?  Explain each thought.  (I realize you are still learning the basics of CBT – give it your best shot based on what you do know.)  (3) Share your understanding of Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” and its relevance to modern CBT.

 

Your original post should be posted by the beginning of class 9/9.  Have your two replies posted no later than 9/11.  *Please remember to click the “reply” button when posting a reply.  This makes it easier for the reader to follow the blog postings.

32 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Jennifer Vear
    Sep 07, 2021 @ 09:53:50

    1. According to Bandura, Reciprocal Determinism in the concept in which an individual’s environment, behavior, and personality are all conjoining factors that influence each other. People’s behaviors are influenced by their environment, and their personalities can influence their environment. This concept is a cyclic perception of how an individual’s behaviors influence the world around them and how the world around them will influence their behaviors. Self-efficacy on the other hand, is another concept that Bandura describes as an individual’s perception of their surroundings and who they are will determine how they act and influence the decisions that they make. For example, the greater self-efficacy that an individual has, the more likely they are to be able to pursue and choose goals that interest and challenge them. The lower the self-efficacy that they have, the more likely they are to develop anxiety and depression. These concepts are related to CBT because CBT focuses on cognitive restructuring methods to facilitate behavior change. Since both reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy rely on an individual’s perception of themselves and their environment, in order to change behavior with CBT, they need to change how they think and feel about themselves as well as possible factors of their environment.

    2. Ellis’s REBT is similar to CBT in that this concept relies on an individual’s perception and beliefs of things, and not by the things themselves. CBT focuses a lot on individuals’ cognition around their thoughts and feelings. REBT also focuses on thinking rationally and turning irrational thoughts into rational ones to change their perception of various things and beliefs to facilitate change. Finally, REBT is similar to CBT in how Ellis talks about how people can rate themselves based on things that they “must” do, or fail to do, but they believe needs to happen. Ellis’s REBT, on the other hand, is different from CBT in his method of being more aggressive with his approach. With this technique, Ellis uses cognitive restructuring to dissipate irrational beliefs. He uses socratic questioning to debate and question those beliefs.

    3. Meichenbaum explains internal dialogue as an individual’s way of understanding and making sense of the world around them. The way in which people talk to themselves in their own head will determine how they feel and behave in certain situations. This relates to CBT through the CBT model of how thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interrelated to one another. With Meichenbaum, the internal dialogue is the thoughts that influence this cycle. Meichenbaum also explains internal dialogue through internal and external attribution. Through internal attribution, an individual will accept themselves as being a contributing factor for situations they go through, and external attribution is when an individual blames external factors for the situations they experience. In total, it is how an individual responds to the stresses they encounter that will determine how they feel and act in the face of those stressors.

    Reply

    • Valerie Graveline
      Sep 09, 2021 @ 09:28:10

      Hi Jenn,

      I like the point you brought up about Ellis’ REBT being a bit more of an aggressive approach than CBT. I noticed this as well in the readings when it was stated that one of the techniques used in treatment in REBT are shame-attacking exercises. I also thought your point about Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue and internal versus external attribution was valuable to note. That idea definitely relates strongly to CBT considering the theory involves interaction of thoughts, feelings and behaviors, and it is important for clinicians to understand what environmental or individual factors their client might attribute their stressors to.

      Valerie

      Reply

    • Lindsay O'Meara
      Sep 11, 2021 @ 23:21:18

      Hi Jennifer!

      Self-efficacy seems to be an important factor in how one feels about their ability to excel at the things that they care about. It’s interesting to think about the areas of your life that you feel confident and show high self-efficacy in, versus how much it doesn’t matter to have low self-efficacy in other areas that you aren’t as committed to. Having low self-efficacy in things that you are passionate about can be so debilitating.
      Reading and hearing about Ellis’s more aggressive approach really makes me want to watch a couple of his therapy videos.

      Thanks,
      Lindsay

      Reply

  2. Kaitlyn Tonkin
    Sep 08, 2021 @ 14:39:47

    1) Bandura explains that reciprocal determinism is the continuous interaction between personal, behavioral, and environmental factors. They each interact and influence an individual, their psychological processes, and their behavior. Similarly, an individual’s behavior can have an effect on personal and environmental factors. This means that the environment and other factors do not solely influence the person, but the person can also influence the other factors and the environment. Bandura also came up with another theory, which is of self-efficacy. He explained that self-efficacy is the belief someone has about how capable they are at executing behaviors that are necessary in certain environments. Bandura also mentioned how self-efficacy guides and directs an individual’s behavior. Furthermore, the more self-efficacy someone perceives that they have, the more likely they are to set high goals and have a stronger commitment to reaching those goals. Conversely, someone who has low perceived self-efficacy is more likely to be vulnerable to anxiety and depression. These two concepts are related to CBT in that they focus on how thinking and behaviors are related and how might thoughts or behaviors could be modified in order to have a better quality of life or reduce maladaptive thoughts and behaviors.

    2) REBT as proposed by Albert Ellis is a type of therapy that is focused on identifying irrational thoughts and beliefs and modifying behaviors, thoughts, and emotions related to those irrational beliefs. REBT is similar to CBT in that both are concerned with identifying thoughts and also changing behaviors. One thing I thought closely resembled CBT was the use of homework assignments, especially those that monitor specific thought processes. This reminded me of thought records, which are sometimes used in CBT to help clients understand why they are feeling a certain way. CBT and REBT are also different. One way in which they differ is that CBT looks at how behavior, thoughts, and feelings are all intertwined, while REBT looks at how irrational beliefs can cause mental illnesses or psychological distress. There are elements that are similar, especially since CBT was based on some of Ellis’ theories, however, there are differences as well that are important to note.

    3) Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue in simple terms is the process of individuals talking to themselves in their heads. This internal dialogue is important because these thoughts and dialogue indicate how someone perceives an event and then influences how they behave in that certain environment. This relates to CBT because of how thoughts influence behavior feelings, and how behavior influences thoughts and feelings. CBT is all about this triangle of how thoughts, behaviors, and feelings influence one another. With internal dialogues, people have conversations within their heads as a way to understand and appraise a situation happening before them. How one appraises the situation determines how one will act in the situation. A way I found this similar to CBT was that internal dialogue sounds like automatic thoughts which occur when a situation or event happens and an individual begins to think about what happened, but without thinking much about the thoughts arising.

    Reply

    • Jennifer Vear
      Sep 08, 2021 @ 16:43:47

      Hi Kaitlyn!

      I really like how you mentioned in question 2 that REBT is different from CBT in that CBT focuses on the connection between behavior, thoughts, and feelings, and REBT focuses on irrational beliefs. I struggled with determining the differences between these two, and your way of explaining it helped me to understand those differences better! They are very similar in various ways. Especially since you could also say that beliefs can create thoughts and feelings and lead to behaviors.

      Great job!

      Reply

  3. Valerie Graveline
    Sep 08, 2021 @ 18:38:07

    1) Based on Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy, my understanding is that reciprocal determinism is when an individual’s personality, behaviors, and environment interact to influence each other, rather than solely one factor impacting the others. For instance, an environment exerts an influence on an individual’s behaviors and personality, while their behaviors and personality also exert influence on the environment. Regarding self-efficacy, I understood this to be an individual’s expectations about how effectively they are able to cope with the outcomes of their own behaviors. With this said, an individual’s perceived self efficacy influences how much effort they are willing to put into coping with negative experiences or obstacles. An individual with poor self efficacy may avoid threatening experiences/obstacles as they may lack confidence in their ability to cope with negative outcomes. On the other hand, individuals with strong self efficacy might be more likely to engage in threatening experiences/obstacles as they are more confident in their coping skills. Ultimately, an individual’s perceived self efficacy influences their behaviors as those with poor self efficacy may avoid negative situations, whereas those with stronger self efficacy may not. These constructs are related to CBT considering the basis of this technique is restructuring an individual’s maladaptive thoughts into adaptive thoughts, and an individual with poor self efficacy can be seen as having a maladaptive thought pattern that is influencing their behaviors. With reciprocal determinism and CBT, the two are related because it shows that an individual’s thought patterns are not only influenced by their own personality or behaviors, but their environment as well. With this said, the way an individual interacts with their environment based on their thought patterns can thus influence their environment, acting as a continuous circle of influence.

    2) Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is similar to CBT in that an individual holds irrational belief systems, and that these unrealistic, irrational beliefs should be substituted with realistic ones. This is similar to CBT because in CBT, the distorted or maladaptive thinking about events is viewed to negatively affect an individual’s behaviors. The goal of CBT is practically the same as REBT, where individual’s must replace the maladaptive appraisals of events with adaptive ones. CBT and REBT also utilize many similar treatment methods with clients, such as self-monitoring of thoughts and skills training. In both CBT and REBT, it is important that the individual recognizes the maladaptive/irrational thoughts so that going forward, they can adjust their thought patterns in the moment for more positive outcomes. However, a stark difference between CBT and REBT is that in REBT a skill that is frequently used in treatment is shame-attacking exercises when acknowledging irrational beliefs. In comparison, from what I have learned about CBT so far, there does not seem to be any negative/aversive exercises in its treatment to adjust an individual’s maladaptive thought patterns.

    3) My understanding of Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” is that it is ultimately the individual’s thought processes. More specifically, it is the internal “voice” of an individual talking to themselves in their head. One’s internal dialogue aids them in understanding their environment, thoughts, and can influence their behavior depending on how they interpret different situations or events. With this said, internal dialogue is a way that individuals cope with and understand situations. Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue is relevant to modern CBT in that it correlates with Beck’s idea of “automatic thoughts”. Beck describes automatic thoughts to not require deliberation, rather they “just happen”, as one’s internal dialogue occurs. Not only this, but one’s automatic thoughts are realistic to the individual, just as their internal dialogue may be. Internal dialogue is valuable to acknowledge in CBT as it allows clinicians to understand the individual’s understanding of the world around them, while learning how they cope with various situations and events. In order to restructure someone’s maladaptive thought patterns in CBT, their understanding of the world must be investigated and acknowledged.

    Reply

    • Lisa Andrianopoulos
      Sep 09, 2021 @ 10:43:07

      Hi Valerie,

      I like your example of how self-efficacy influences one’s approach to a threat or obstacle. In one of our other readings it was discussed that one can appraise a situation as a threat/stressful while another can view it as a challenge. The latter view has the best outcomes and least negative impact. If one has a strong sense of self efficacy in a particular situation, they are more likely to see it as a challenge rather than something to be avoided.

      Reply

  4. Lisa Andrianopoulos
    Sep 09, 2021 @ 10:36:30

    Reciprocal determinism, according to Bandura, is a bidirectional process between personal influences/behavior and environmental determinants, meaning that each is influenced by the other. Environmental factors determine what personal influences and behaviors are activated. At the same time, personal influences and behavior determine what environmental influences come into play. It is a “two-way” control system in which each factor can be both a stimulus and a response. Self efficacy is an individual’s internal beliefs about their capabilities to perform particular actions. It affects motivation to complete a task, behavior and sense of control over the environment. For example, a doctor may have a strong sense of self efficacy and thus, motivation, for conducting medical exams, while an auto mechanic may have a weak sense of self efficacy for the same task. Self efficacy is an important factor in reciprocal determinism because self-generated beliefs (in this case one’s sense of self efficacy) are a personal influence that both determines what is activated in the environment and is also influenced by the environment. This relates to CBT in that CBT theory posits that thoughts influence behavior and feelings and vice versa. In a sense, reciprocal determinism and cognitive behavioral theory each have a bidirectional triangle of influences.

    According to the readings, in REBT, “individuals and group therapy clients do considerable work between sessions.” Self-work and self-analysis are an important part of the process because the goal is to have the client live eventual “rational” lives without the help of a therapist. Similarly, CBT often uses home work as a technique for clients to apply strategies learned in session to their everyday lives. As with REBT, the idea in CBT is to ultimately teach clients to be their own problem solvers. REBT also posits that “you feel the way you think,” meaning that feelings originate from one’s thoughts, beliefs, attitudes and ideas. This is at the core of CBT, where exploring thought patterns as it relates to feelings and behaviors is a significant part of the work. Interestingly though, Ellis describes this as a two-way process of thoughts and feelings. While behavior is referred to, it is only implied that thoughts and feelings affect them. From my perspective in reading the Ellis chapters, behavior is talked about as more of an outcome rather than a direct influencer. In CBT, the three are given equal weight, hence the cognitive triangle.

    Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” is essentially one’s inner speech or “concealed verbalizations.” It involves such things as self-statements, cognitive appraisals and automatic thoughts. It might be described as an internal dialogue in which individuals both speak and listen to themselves. According to Michenbaum, inner speech is an important influence on individual behavior and cognitive structures. He refers to cognitive structures as an internal system of concepts and judgements that shape the content of an individual’s internal dialogue. Implicit in this is the idea that how one responds to an event (e.g, stress), is influenced by how they view (i.e., appraise) the situation. Meichenbaum argues that by altering cognitive structures one can alter their response/behavior (e.g., one’s response to stressful events). This relates to the CBT techniques of challenging dysfunctional “automatic thoughts” and cognitive restructuring.

    Reply

    • Katie O'Brien
      Sep 09, 2021 @ 12:09:05

      Lisa,

      I liked how you noted that according to the REBT readings, behavior is more of an outcome than a component with equal weight to thoughts and emotions. I found the differences between the approaches to be subtle but after reading your post, this one is certainly important to note. You might have a client who is simply ready for action and changing their behavior might be possible with more action-oriented therapies rather than needing intense thought restructuring. I think in CBT, you could meet the client where they’re at and provide action-based interventions. I wonder in REBT, if a therapist would bother focusing on an action intervention alone or if they would always look for irrational thought patterns. It’s an interesting distinction! Thanks,

      Katie

      Reply

    • Frayah Wilkey
      Sep 09, 2021 @ 19:08:34

      Lisa,
      I appreciate your perspective on CBT and therapy sessions due to your background and work within the field. Your comments on self-work are especially important to consider because it’s such a huge part of effective therapy. Sessions are only a fraction of a person’s week so homework and self-work are vital. Thank you for sharing yout thoughts!

      Reply

    • Kaitlyn Tonkin
      Sep 11, 2021 @ 17:13:03

      Hi Lisa,
      I appreciated the example you gave about self-efficacy with the mechanic and doctor. It really helped me understand self-efficacy better, especially how you explained it in terms of reciprocal determinism. It also makes a lot of sense when you put it in the context of CBT like you did! Thank you for sharing!

      -Kaitlyn

      Reply

  5. Katie O'Brien
    Sep 09, 2021 @ 10:41:52

    1.) According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism is the idea that behavior, thoughts and emotions, and environmental factors all interact with and influence each other. This means that people’s expectations can influence how they behave and the outcomes they face can change those expectations. Similarly, the environment a person is in can influence what behaviors are developed in an individual.

    Self-efficacy is a person’s belief that they can adequately execute the behaviors necessary in a particular situation. The strength of people’s belief that they can execute these behaviors will then affect how they cope within the given situation.

    For example, a college student might be sitting for a difficult exam and see a handful of other students turn their exams into the professor before the time is up. Noticing other students finishing up early might lead the student to panic and think “There’s no way I will finish, I’m not smart enough, I’m going to fail,” and by focusing on these thoughts, they might begin to physically feel more anxious and not be able to focus on the task at hand: finishing their exam. On the other hand, another student might notice other students handing in their exams and think “I have plenty of time left, they should have used all the time, I’m going to do very well.” and instead of focusing on their anxiety, they can get back to work and complete their exam. So not only do their thoughts, emotions, environment and behavior play a role in how the rest of the exam-taking will go, the person’s self efficacy is also important. One student did not believe they could pass and became so anxious over not passing that they could not finish, and the other, knowing they could handle the exam, did not become too anxious to focus and complete the test.

    These ideas are related to CBT because recognizing how their environment affects them and identifying those thoughts of “I’m not smart enough, I will fail,” would allow the person to restructure those thoughts and potentially have a different outcome. For example, if they were able to think instead, “I’m taking longer because I’m being more thorough, I will still complete my exam, and I will pass,” they may not become so fixated on their anxiety that they are unable to complete the exam.

    2.) According to CBT, thoughts, emotions, and behaviors are all interconnected. By identifying maladaptive thought patterns, we can restructure our thoughts and impact our emotions and behaviors. REBT is very similar in that it addresses negative thinking in individuals in an effort to influence behavior. In REBT, therapists place a lot of “work” on the clients to do some self-analysis so that they are able to observe their own thoughts and emotions and behave accordingly, distinguishing between appropriate and inappropriate emotions and behaviors. Much of the work in REBT is done through homework on the client’s end, much like in CBT, outside of the therapeutic setting.

    However, according to REBT, negative thoughts are actually considered irrational assumptions which affect individuals and their behaviors in all situations. Using the ABC’s, REBT identifies the Activating event or trigger, the Belief or irrational assumption, usually regarding the “goodness” or “badness” of the person or what they “should” do, and the Consequences, or the emotional and behavioral consequences of that thinking. Once these irrational beliefs have been brought to the surface and disputed, the individual will have greater emotional control and thus better behavioral outcomes.

    3.) According to Meichenbaum, internal dialogue or inner speech, or the thoughts one has as they weigh their options, help individuals to attend to certain aspects of their environment, help individuals appraise certain stimuli, identify to what their behavior is attributed, and help the individual realize their expectations about their own ability to handle stressful events. For example, in the earlier situation of college students sitting for an exam, as the students decided how to proceed, one attended far more to their anxiety feelings than the other, and similarly, one had lower expectations or self-efficacy, than the other, impacting the outcomes of the exams. Internal dialogue thus influences a clients attentional and appraisal processes – what an individual is paying attention to in their environment and the significance they are placing on these stimuli. Using a CBT lens, the therapist would work with the client to examine their internal dialogue and restructure those thoughts, so that, for example, the student could interpret the other students handing in their exam early differently, pay less attention to the physiological feelings of anxiety, and more attention to his exam, and thus engage in more exam-focused behaviors.

    Reply

    • Francesca Bellizzi
      Sep 10, 2021 @ 22:02:53

      Hi Katie,

      First off, I want to say great blog post! The way you defined and explained the concepts in all three questions was so clear, detailed, and I really enjoyed the examples that you provided. Second, your answer to question 2 really furthered my understanding of REBT. Before talking about it in class, it really didn’t make too much sense to me and your description really helped!

      Great job!

      Francesca

      Reply

  6. Frayah Wilkey
    Sep 09, 2021 @ 11:32:25

    (1) In the assigned readings, it is explained that Bandura defined reciprocal determinism as interactions between personality, behaviors, and environmental components. These three components interact and influence each other during a person’s lifetime. This means that a person’s environment influences their personality and behaviors, just as their personality influences the other two components and so on. Bandura felt that it was important to look at the transactions between a person and their environment to better understand them. Self-efficacy is also an important concept described in the readings. My understanding is that it is a person’s expectations and beliefs in their ability to control their behaviors and events in their life. This belief of control can motivate certain behaviors and decisions as well as effect goal setting. Those with low self-efficacy may feel anxious or out of control, while those with high self-efficacy may be more confident and in control of their life and outcomes. Both of these concepts are important to the foundation of CBT, which relies on the individual’s conscious interactions with themselves and things in their environment. Bandura’s writings emphasized the person’s impact on their environment, something that previous theories lacked. CBT aims to educate clients about these interactions and ways to change aspects to increase fulfillment. When people better understand the interactions in their lives and how their own outlooks may be negatively effecting them, they can begin to adjust. Reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy are foundational concepts for creating meaningful change in people’s lives.

    (2) In the 50’s, Ellis proposed Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) as an approach to therapy. The approach aims to help individuals identify irrational belief systems and possible negative thought patterns. These goal is to uncover these because Ellis felt that they may lead to emotional and behavioral issues. This focus on thoughts and their effects on emotions and behaviors is a key concept in CBT, which delves into a person’s cognitions and behaviors. CBT tries to uncover these interactions and aims to adjust beliefs and thought patters in order to increase a person’s functioning. Therapists may work with automatic thoughts or cognitive restructuring to change irrational beliefs and negative thinking so that the client’s emotional and/or behavioral issues can be resolved. Differentially, Ellis was more aggressive in some of his approaches, which doesn’t seem to be a central theme in modern CBT practices. In his chapter “Thinking Yourself out of Emotional Disturbances”, Ellis is a bit harsh to his client who he feels has complete control of her destiny, but is lacking in effort. My understanding of CBT would argue that the dialogue was not ultimately helpful and lacked unconditional positive regard.

    (3) Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” is referred to as a person’s inner speech which contributes to a person’s awareness. It allows them to work through decisions, emotions, behaviors, all of which are central concepts to CBT. Meichenbaum’s thoughts about a person’s self-awareness and ability to ponder different situations are often translated to CBT sessions. CBT requires the individual to work with their internal dialogue in order to change their cognitions and behaviors. It can help them better understand their own decisions and actions and those of others. CBT may also work to alter aspects of a person’s internal dialogue in order to change some negative aspect about their life or something that they are struggling with.

    Reply

    • Katie O'Brien
      Sep 09, 2021 @ 12:18:19

      Frayah,

      I appreciate your note about unconditional positive regard. As I was reading the chapters, I got the sense of it almost being the client’s “fault” that they held irrational beliefs. Their poor thinking caused their struggles. While certain cognitive processes may be at play in these struggles or disturbances, and they are possible to change, I don’t think that should place the blame on the client for thinking the way they do. At least, not entirely. I think the unconditional positive regard and empathy that you noted are important to CBT are really important so that we don’t make the client feel worse about themselves than they already do. Thanks for pointing that out!

      Katie

      Reply

    • Lindsay O'Meara
      Sep 11, 2021 @ 23:28:34

      Hi Frayah!

      I think that Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue is so interesting. This concept reminds me of mindfulness in a way, where you monitor the thoughts that are coming to you without reacting to them. Questioning why we are having the thoughts we are before letting anxiety take over can be so powerful. Self awareness can lead to a lot of insight for individuals and lead to changes that need to be made. I like how you mentioned how changing cognitions can lead to behavior change. When you really focus on why the thoughts are happening to begin with, your reactions will change as well.

      Reply

    • Giana Faia
      Sep 12, 2021 @ 18:39:23

      Frayah,

      I like how you described the significance of self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism in relation to CBT by pointing out the important element of individuals interactions with their environment. How people interact with their environment, behave, and have certain thoughts provides helpful information in therapy, specifically relating to CBT. When discussing CBT, it is important to recognize the interplay between behaviors, thoughts, and environment. I agree that these concepts are the foundation for creating change in peoples lives.

      Reply

  7. Francesca Bellizzi
    Sep 09, 2021 @ 11:40:42

    1. In Bandura’s writing, he explains that reciprocal determinism is an interactive relationship in which one’s own personality, environment, and behaviors have an influence over each other. These personal, situational, and behavioral variables are constantly interacting and influencing each other. For example, if it’s the first day of school and a student who is introverted and shy (personal) walks into class and notices a group of students in the class already (situational) sits in the back of the classroom in order to not have to talk (behavioral). Here, it is easy to see how these three factors have an influence, yet the dynamics could change along with the variables (i.e. an extroverted student may sit towards the front of the class). Bandura also explains the concept of self-efficacy or one’s belief in their abilities to perform and execute behaviors that are necessary for performance attainments; however, it is also one’s confidence in their ability to control their environment, motivation, and behavior. For instance, an individual who has low levels of self-efficacy believes that they have little to no control over their behaviors, motivations, environment, and make little achievements. These two constructs defined by Bandura relate to CBT through the concept that our behaviors and cognitions have an interactive relationship – specifically, how our behaviors and cognitions may affect one another. Yet, these concepts relate to CBT because they introduce that our environment has an influence over our thoughts and behaviors as well.

    2. Developed and proposed by Albert Ellis, REBT focuses on identifying and dealing with irrational beliefs. Through this, individuals learn how to adaptively regulate their thoughts, behaviors, and emotions, and ultimately alter irrational beliefs and negative thinking patterns. One way REBT and CBT are similar is both therapies aim to restructure an individual’s thought process by replacing irrational thoughts with more adaptive ones. Both therapies also utilize “homework” to help individuals identify maladaptive thoughts and behaviors as they are happening, and may help one notice patterns of irrational thinking and behaving. While there are similarities between these two therapies, there are also differences. One difference between REBT and CBT is that the foundation of Ellis’ therapy is highly philosophical while Bandura founded CBT on research. One other noticeable difference between the two therapies is that CBT believes that thoughts, behaviors, and emotions are all intertwined and affect each other while REBT just focuses on the irrational thoughts and negative thinking patterns and their subsequent effect on an individual’s mental health.

    3. Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue (or self-talk) functions as a mechanism to help an individual understand their environment. Simply, it is the voice inside your head – or the way you talk to yourself. This internal dialogue is important in understanding the way an individual behaves because the nature of an individual’s self-talk influences their emotions, cognitions, and the way they behave in certain environments. Meichhenbaum’s concept of internal dialogue was used in his development of cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM). Similar to CBT, CBM focused on identifying maladaptive internal dialogue to restructure and dismiss equally maladaptive (and unwanted) behaviors. This internal dialogue is also similar to the CBT concept of automatic thoughts – or thoughts that are uncued and occur without any previous thinking about the particular subject. These two processes are influential in CBT as they allow the individual and the therapist to dive deeper into why these thoughts are happening, how their affecting their behaviors, and also their situations/environment.

    Reply

    • Jennifer Vear
      Sep 10, 2021 @ 10:34:38

      Hi Francesca,

      I think it is really interesting that a lot of these techniques are very similar to CBT. They also all seem to reference an individual’s core beliefs and automatic thoughts as well through different, but similar, ways in which we can help others modify them. The only thing you might have been confused about was that Beck introduced CBT, not Bandura, who introduced observational learning. But that might have just been a grammatical error.

      Reply

    • Kaitlyn Tonkin
      Sep 11, 2021 @ 17:17:17

      Francesca,

      You make a really good point about the history and basis of CBT and REBT, which I think is very important, especially when looking at the two from a historical perspective. Like you said, REBT was founded in philosophy and CBT and Bandura’s theory was founded in research. These are really important to note, thank you for your insight!

      -Kaitlyn

      Reply

    • Sergio Rodriguez
      Sep 13, 2021 @ 18:52:18

      Hi Francesca,

      I really liked how you redefined the concept as the voice inside your head. This made me think a long time ago when I worked with children with low frustration tolerance, and this internal dialogue could help them. For instance, when a task can be challenging, and frustration appears, they tend to quit the activities easily but, using self-talk to identify maladaptive internal dialogue to restructure and dismiss maladaptive behaviors.

      Great post!

      Reply

  8. Lindsay O'Meara
    Sep 09, 2021 @ 14:55:50

    1. Bandura believed that multiple factors influence an individuals’ psychological functioning. His thought’s regarding reciprocal determinism revolved around three parts, behavior, personal factors (thoughts and emotions), and environmental factors. These three factors interact with each other, meaning that we have some amount of control over our behaviors.
    Self-efficacy has to do with whether an individual feels that he or she is capable of executing behaviors required by a particular situation. How an individual feels about their ability to execute behaviors influences their decision making when it comes to setting goals and taking risks. These constructs are related to CBT because each of them has a cognitive and a behavioral aspect. Reciprocal determinism encompasses both thoughts and behaviors and they interact with the environment. Having high self-efficacy can result in setting higher goals and taking larger risks to get there.

    2. Ellis’s REBT is similar to CBT because it agrees that cognitive disturbances are a feature of psychological disturbance. There are cognitive techniques to combat these beliefs and debate the truth of falsehood of them. REBT is different from CBT because cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are not viewed as psychological processes, but as interdependent and interactive processes.

    3. Meichenbaum talks about internal dialogue in the sense of how we speak to ourselves in our heads. Anxiety stems from not what is happening to us, but how we think about what is happening to us. There is external attribution, where we blame external events, and internal attribution, where we take accountability. This is relevant to modern CBT because although there are automatic thoughts that may pop up for us, we are able to question and analyze the thoughts that we are having. We are able to create more positive or helpful thoughts that can change our behavior.

    Reply

    • Morgan Rafferty
      Sep 11, 2021 @ 10:47:12

      Hi Lindsay! The statement within your post regarding how anxiety stems not from what is happening to us but rather from how we think about what is happening to us is extremely powerful in my opinion. I am always fascinated by variation in perceptions. How two people can encounter/endure the same event and walk away from it with quite different interpretations. If we find ways to shift our client’s internal dialogues (and our own!) away from anxiety-provoking thoughts and more toward calm, reassuring thoughts we will find success at diminishing anxiety. Unfortunately, this is way easier said than done!

      Reply

    • Giana Faia
      Sep 12, 2021 @ 18:45:37

      Hi Lindsey,

      I like how you mentioned anxiety and how it’s not about what is happening to us but rather how we think about it. In terms of internal dialogue, we may go over the certain situation in our head and pick out new details each time to fixate on which cause us more stress and anxiety in those certain situations. We might not be so anxious at first, but then going over it with our internal dialogue, we might cause more anxiety over it. I like how you pointed out that despite having automatic thoughts, we are able to question and analyze those thoughts to hopefully change them to be more positive.

      Reply

  9. Giana Faia
    Sep 09, 2021 @ 15:19:57

    1. According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism views psychological functioning as an ongoing interaction between personal, behavioral, and environmental determinants. With reciprocal determinism, there is a mutual action between events meaning the environment, personal, and behavioral factors are all interrelated. A persons environment can influence their behaviors and vice versa. Next, Bandura explains self-efficacy as an individual’s belief on how capable they are of their ability to execute behaviors that match their expectations. Those who demonstrate high self-efficacy are more likely to set goals and be motivated to achieve those goals. Whereas those with low self-efficacy are more likely to experience anxiety and depression. Both constructs relate to CBT because they focus on behavior and how it impacts other aspects of our lives. With CBT, we try to help the client understand that feelings don’t just occur, rather they are the result of something. So by helping clients understand that our environment, self, and behavior are all connected, it can help them change certain thoughts/ feelings they experience. Self-efficacy relates to CBT because depending on a person having high or low self-efficacy, it provides insight on how they cope with situations, their motivation, as well as treatment outcomes.

    2. Albert Ellis considers rational emotive behavior therapy as another approach to therapy. REBT aims to create straight and rational thinking/ living. This is similar to CBT in the sense that both aim to reduce negative ways of thinking, and increase more rational thinking. Through the use of CBT, therapists work toward changing automatic thoughts, like irrational thoughts, to more productive and rational thoughts. Another similarity is the concept of trying to get clients to think for themselves. This is similar to CBT where we provide tools to the client to eventually get them to the point of them being their own therapist. Similarly to CBT, in REBT, there is an emphasis on the use of homework. They want clients to be doing the work both outside of sessions as well as during sessions. Through the use of homework, it exposes clients to making an effort outside of their normal therapy sessions. Another focus is self-analysis. With CBT, this is important because we want clients to be aware of their thoughts and behaviors as a step in changing or reducing them.

    3. I understand Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” to be a person’s internal thoughts, also referred to as “inner speech” by Meichenbaum. Based on an individuals internal dialogue, it can effect how they cope with certain situations. Meichenbaum mentions the idea that changing someone’s internal dialogue can have impacts on attention and appraisal, as well as having psychological impacts. An individuals internal dialogue can impact behaviors, thoughts and feelings. This relates to CBT, because the focus of CBT is to challenge and change negative thoughts/ problem behaviors in order to improve overall well being. If someone’s internal dialogue is negative, the aim of CBT would be to reduce those negative thoughts/ ideas which would ultimately impact the individual’s actions, environment, and other factors. By understanding one’s internal dialogue, it provides insight to how they cope with situations and stressors in their environment which is useful during therapy. With this information, it can help understand how a client will react with certain interventions and treatment plans

    Reply

    • Francesca Bellizzi
      Sep 10, 2021 @ 21:58:25

      Hi Giana,

      I liked the way that you connected self-efficacy to CBT. I think that understanding the way self-efficacy impacts an individual’s ability to self-regulate and deal with distress is very important. All in all, reshaping maladaptive thoughts and being able to cope properly when the thoughts and behaviors occur comes down to raising someone’s level of self-efficacy to ensure they have the motivation and ability.

      Thanks so much for sharing!

      Francesca

      Reply

    • Sergio Rodriguez
      Sep 13, 2021 @ 22:30:00

      Hi Giana,

      I strongly agree with the fact that helping clients to understand the influence and the impact of their behaviors in the enviroment and vice versa is a crucial area of CBT. This strategy is known as psychoeducation and it’s one of the first steps of CBT interventions because also accordingly to what you mentioned on your post it can helps the individuals to be aware of their needs, and their motivations for change.

      Thanks.

      Reply

  10. Morgan Rafferty
    Sep 09, 2021 @ 15:21:27

    1.)
    Reciprocal determinism is a central concept of Bandura’s social learning theory. It is the perspective that psychological functioning is a continuous reciprocal interaction between personal, behavioral, and environmental determinants. Reciprocal determinism involves searching for the ultimate cause of behavior which is a futile exercise in an interactional environment. Bandura is interested in how much variation in behavior is due to personal characteristics vs. situational conditions vs. both.
    Self-efficacy pertains to the belief people hold that they are capable in exercising control over their own functioning and over events that effect their lives. One’s sense of self-efficacy can provide the foundation for motivation, well-being and personal accomplishment. There are four sources of self-efficacy: mastery (ie., success), vicarious experiences (ie., social comparison; watching successful models), verbal persuasion or the social influence of evaluative feedback (self-talk).
    CBT involves identifying troubling situations/conditions in your life and becoming aware of your thoughts, emotions and beliefs about these problems. A central goal of CBT is to identify negative or inaccurate thinking and reshape the negative thinking. Reciprocal determinism is linked to CBT in that both involve an interactional relationship among various factors. According to CBT, our thoughts, emotions, body sensations and behavior are all connected. What we think and do, affects the way we feel. Self-efficacy is related to CBT because an individual’s belief in his/her capacity to execute behaviors is necessary to produce specific performance attainments. Reshaping a person’s negative thoughts and shifting those thoughts more toward confidence in one’s ability to exert control over one’s own motivation, behavior, and social environment incorporates both CBT and self-efficacy.

    2.)
    Ellis’ Rational-emotive therapy (RET) asks of the client that they do as the therapist says and challenge their own “nonsense” by which they continue creating emotional disturbance. RET is similar to CBT in that it involves learning how to question your own assumptions about yourself and others; learning how to think and act more rationally. It takes time and persistent repetition by the therapist, backsliding on the part of the client, renewed attempts made by the client and applying his/her perceptions of the therapist’s instructions.
    RET differs from CBT in the sense that it is way more of a directive approach. The focus in RET is on recognizing and changing irrational thoughts whereas the focus in CBT is broader and more in depth; as the therapist guides the client to understanding how one’s cognitions strongly influence one’s behaviors.

    3.)
    My understanding of Merchenbaum’s “internal dialogue” (aka inner speech or automatic thoughts) is these are the thoughts we each experience that seem to emerge automatically and extremely rapidly. We monitor our thoughts, wishes, feelings, and actions. Sometimes an internal debate results. Many times, these inner thoughts are plausible and reasonable to an individual but may seem far fetched to others. Inner dialogue plays an important role in being able to influence client’s behaviors. In doing so, internal dialogue works to influence and alter client’s cognitive structures making it relevant to CBT.

    Reply

    • Frayah Wilkey
      Sep 09, 2021 @ 19:12:34

      Morgan,
      I particularly liked your thoughts for question 3 on internal dialogues. It’s important to be aware that a person’s thoughts and internal thought processes may make complete sense to them. In therapy we cannot assume that the individual is aware that there is a problem with certain thoughts, This concept is a great point for us to remember as we continue through our future CBT classes.

      Reply

    • Valerie Graveline
      Sep 10, 2021 @ 13:43:43

      Hi Morgan,

      I thought that you mentioning the four sources of self-efficacy was really important and helped me further think about the topic’s relation to CBT. It’s crucial as a clinician to understand how clients view their own abilities, and where these thoughts about their own abilities may come from. In order to reshape their maladaptive cognitions regarding their self-efficacy into adaptive ones, it may be important to note the factors in their environment (such as social comparison) so that the client can notice similar situations as they arise in the future.

      Great response overall!

      Valerie

      Reply

  11. Sergio Rodriguez
    Sep 10, 2021 @ 00:03:12

    1) According to Bandura’s readings, reciprocal determinism refers to the mutual effect that the individual’s personality factors, behavior, and environment generate. In other words, every aspect affects and is influenced by the other. Thus, it is not a unidirectional relationship as it can be perceived, the main important factor is the bilateral impact.
    One of the key elements is that when an individual seems to be influenced by the environment, the environment will be influenced by the subsequent individual’s response. Bandura explains self-efficacy as the person’s belief in their ability to carry out the actions required to achieve performance goals. Thus, the answer to the question how good is the individual at doing something? Which is oriented by an individual’s belief that a person can successfully execute the behaviors required by a particular situation.
    I found really important as well the concepts of Efficacy expectation: conviction that a person can execute the behavior to practice the desired outcome. The other concept is Outcome Expectation which refers to a person’s estimate that a given behavior will lead to a certain outcome. Reciprocal determinism is related to CBT in the analysis of how the three key elements of CBT behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and their relationship to the environment where the environment also has an effect and impact on them.

    2) According to Ellis, Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy REBT is a sort of active-directive psychotherapy. The therapist guides the patient in identifying the philosophical roots of his psychological issues, demonstrating that they can be addressed and that his troubling illogical views may be modified. It is similar to CBT in some of the therapeutic change aspects. For instance, Ellis proposes disputation as a way to debate the individual’s irrational thoughts. This type of strategy is like what Beck presents as a cognitive restructuring in CBT. Both strategies use Socratic questioning as a way to approach the client. Still, the CBT is semantically more accessible or kind for a client since it is presented as a way to understand better the thoughts, rephrase or analyze them instead of just a confrontational debate. Another similarity is that both therapies understand that cognitive distortions are a feature of psychological disturbance. Two examples are minimization: underplaying the importance of an event. For example, your teachers laud you for an outstanding term’s work, but you dismiss it as insignificant. magnification A tendency to exaggerate the negative aspects of a feature, situation, or person. “I missed the game-winning penalty, and my career is over.” Negative feelings that are beneficial. REBT is the only CBT therapy distinguishing between self-destructive, unsuitable negative emotions and constructive, appropriate negative ones. Anxiety, depression, and rage fall into the first category, whereas severe sadness, deep sorrow, significant concern, and regret fall into the second.

    3) There are three elements to be taken into account: 1) Interpersonal Instructions that have to Interpersonal instructions) operate in a similar function to interpersonal instructions. 2) Cognitive Factors in stress: External vs. Internal attribution where the individuals with low self-efficacy use the external aspect to excuse self of responsibility and the internal attribution to accept self-responsibility for failures.
    3) Instructional sets and physiological effects, we have to count what the individual says to themselves about that arousal that determines one’s eventual reactions.
    Self-instructions are a cognitive technique designed by Meichenbaum. Its objective is to modify the learner’s internal dialogue when performing a task or facing a situation. The technique aims to achieve behavior modification through self-talk to improve skills, achieve self-control, or solve problems. Each self-instruction is a step
    to solve the situation or activity.

    Reply

  12. Morgan Rafferty
    Sep 11, 2021 @ 10:41:39

    Great post Sergio. I appreciate how you differentiated between self–destructive, unsuitable negative emotions and constructive, appropriate emotions. Your examples of each really made me contemplate that distinction.
    I also like how you clarified the concepts of Efficacy expectation and Outcome expectation. It is helpful to be aware of the distinction between these two concepts.
    Thanks for a great post Sergio!

    Reply

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Adam M. Volungis, PhD, LMHC

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