Topic 1: Social Learning & Cognitive Theories {by 9/8}

There were multiple readings due last week (Bandura) and this week (Ellis & Harper; Meichenbaum; Lazarus & Folkman).  For this discussion, share at least three thoughts: (1) In your own words, explain your understanding of Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy?  How are these constructs related to CBT?  (2) What are a couple examples of how Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is both similar to CBT and different from CBT?  Explain each thought.  (I realize you are still learning the basics of CBT – give it your best shot based on what you do know.)  (3) Share your understanding of Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” and its relevance to modern CBT.

 

Your original post should be posted by the beginning of class 9/8.  Have your two replies posted no later than 9/10.  *Please remember to click the “reply” button when posting a reply.  This makes it easier for the reader to follow the blog postings.

44 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Bekah Riley
    Sep 06, 2022 @ 09:45:29

    Reciprocal determination, or Bandura’s social learning view of interaction describes how behaviors, personal factors such as thoughts and emotions, as well as environmental factors all interact and affect one another. For example, one’s behavior may cause an environmental reaction. That environmental reaction may then have an effect on the individual’s thoughts and emotions. How the individual is thinking and feeling in that moment may then have an effect on their further behaviors. In this example and explained by reciprocal determination is that behavior, person factors and the environment all have a reciprocal interaction that is continuous. Bandura also describes that individuals have some form of free will in terms of their behaviors, thoughts and emotions, as well as some environmental factors. Although certain things may be out of an individual’s control, we may have more control over what we can and cannot do as well as our thoughts and feelings than we may have originally perceived. On the other hand, Bandura also emphasizes the idea of self-efficacy, or one’s belief about their ability to successfully display certain behaviors required by a given situation. Whether an individual has high or low self-efficacy, it has an effect on both their behaviors and goals. For example, higher self-efficacy may be tied to having more motivation, higher goals, and a stronger commitment to reach those goals. Low self-efficacy may produce an opposite effect leading to less motivation, lower goals, and less of a commitment. In addition, Bandura describes that having low self-efficacy may cause and individual to be more vulnerable or prone to having symptoms of anxiety and depression. Both reciprocal determination and self-efficacy may be related to CBT in the sense that CBT describes the interactions between thoughts, behaviors and emotions and how they continuously affect one another. Similarly, reciprocal determination describes the continuous reciprocal interaction between behaviors, person factors, and the environment. In addition, for CBT to be effective in treating a client, that client must have some sort of motivation to reach their therapeutic goals, which may be determined by their self-efficacy.

    Albert Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is both similar and different from CBT. In REBT, cognitions, emotions and behaviors are described as being both independent and interactive processes. Similarly, CBT emphasizes the continuous interaction between thoughts, behaviors and emotions. REBT also has a strong focus on rational vs irrational thoughts where rational thoughts are true, logical and help an individual reach long term goals, while irrational thoughts are false, illogical, and may prevent an individual from reaching their goals. Irrational thoughts may also lead to different irrational processes as well as various cognitive distortions, ultimately leading to unwanted emotions and/or behaviors. Similarly, in CBT cognitive distortions or negative thoughts may affect how an individual feels and acts. These distortions are often treated with cognitive restructuring in both CBT and REBT. However, REBT may differ from CBT in the sense that there is a stronger element of debating the truth or falsehood of irrational beliefs or cognitive distortions in REBT.

    Meichenbaum describes the concept of internal dialogue as the intrapersonal conversations that one has in their head. Within this concept, Meichenbaum emphasizes that how an individual thinks about or perceives a psychological or physiological arousal will contribute to their response to that arousal or performance. For example, two different individuals may be well prepared with information on a topic to give a presentation. However, one individual may have anxiety when it comes to public speaking while the other individual may not. Both being anxious about public speaking as well as being confident about public speaking will affect each individual’s ability to perform successfully when giving a presentation. The individual may react to their level of success on their performance either externally or internally where an external reaction leads to the individual excusing the responsibility for their performance while an internal reaction leads to the individual accepting themselves as responsible for their performance. Internal dialogue may also tie into an individual’s automatic thoughts or the thoughts that emerge rapidly and automatically. In addition, the way that an individual organizes their thoughts, or their cognitive structures may also play into their internal dialogue. Meichenbaum’s idea of internal dialogue and how we perceive different arousals plays an important role in modern CBT. For example, identifying different negative automatic thoughts as well as cognitive distortions and working to perceive these thoughts and distortions in a more adaptive manner, ultimately leading to implementing healthy coping mechanisms is an important aspect of CBT.

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    • Ashley Torres
      Sep 07, 2022 @ 18:16:31

      Hi Bekah, it is very interesting to learn how our internal dialogue works. I enjoyed how you included the example of public speaking. It would be cool to ask two different people about their internal voice after the presentation and their associated behaviors. Comparing external and internal reactions by their thought patterns could be a way to analyze their thinking. Overall, internal dialogue is bigger than just a voice but rather our way of thinking and behaving.

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    • Kat Gatto
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 23:38:10

      You had such great thoughts on reciprocal determination, Bekah! It is always important to consider how an individual’s environment, thoughts, and behaviors interact so that we can address certain maladaptive patterns to the best of our abilities. Specifically, let’s say that an individual may ask a peer out on a date in middle school. The peer may respond by laughing and making fun of the individual in an overt fashion for even attempting to ask them out. Then, the individual may believe that they are unlovable and freeze whenever they try to talk to peers that they have romantic feelings for. This individual can neither control the way that the peer reacted initially nor the way peers may respond in the future to such a question. However, the individual can control the way that they think about being unlovable. CBT may challenge that thought by encouraging the individual to think instead that “anybody who would respond so rudely is not a nice person and I do not want to be with such a callous person”. Then, the individual may feel relief instead of disappointment and self-hatred at being turned down. Finally, the individual may be more likely to ask other peers out in the future because they can recognize that they were never unlovable. This is a good example of resilience in the face of adversity, and may positively contribute to an individual’s sense of self-efficacy when it comes to interpersonal relationships.

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  2. Rylee L Ferguson
    Sep 07, 2022 @ 10:43:25

    I understand Bandura’s idea of reciprocal determinism as meaning that an individual, their actions, and their environment all affect one another and play a role in decision making. No single factor is uniquely responsible nor is any one the origin. All these factors are tangled together indefinitely. For example, a child might act out at home causing the parents stress and making the environment more chaotic. However the parent’s may also be short tempered and impatient making the child upset. The effect goes in both directions from individual to environment and vice versa. It is difficult to say which initiated the interaction. Self-efficacy on the other hand appears to be an internal conception of how capable they are to achieve an outcome. People with more self-efficacy are more likely to get involved in demanding situations and to believe their efforts will be successful. Just this belief does not mean they will succeed, there are still other factors involved such as if they truly have the capability they imagine. These relate to CBT as it involves taking into account the multiple factors addressed in reciprocal determinism. CBT can aim to enact change in the individual, the environment, and or one’s actions in order to better the person. Also self-esteem issues might be worked on through a lens of self-efficacy. Improving someone’s confidence in their abilities could help them better approach intimidating situations.

    Both RET and CBT recognize the place emotions have in affecting our behavior. They disagree openly with previous types of therapy like psychoanalysis and argue in favor of taking action to create improvements. Systematic checks on progress are also important in each of these approaches. However, RET is distinct in the extent to which it focuses on emotions. It seems like emotions are the biggest determinant and the focus of change in RET. On the other hand, CBT can work to help someone react differently emotionally, make changes to their behavior or environment, depending on the situation. In this way it seems CBT has a broader scope. Another potential difference is that Ellis speaks negatively of people’s own ability to better themselves on their own. However, CBT is meant to only be carried out as treatment for a limited period of time. Once someone has learned the necessary skills, they should be able to rely on things like self-analysis to better themselves.

    Internal dialogue is one’s conscious flow of thoughts inside their head. According to Meichenbaum, this thinking or internal dialogue affects how we choose to behave. I think this is a logical conclusion, especially with the example of stress. When people are under stress, their thinking patterns are different, often hindered, and this can negatively affect performance. I like that the term used is dialogue rather than monologue because its not a rehearsed speech but a progression of ideas that you are both producing and taking in. Sometimes I think you can have a thought in your internal dialogue that you reject whereas other times you truly believe and internalize it. I believe it is this latter scenario where our internal dialogue begins to have effects on our behavior. I think CBT would work to ensure people would internalize appropriate messages in their internal dialogue while combating false messages. For example, this might involve working with someone to challenge the idea in their head that they are a failure because of their grades. They might hope to replace that internal dialogue with a more positive or at least realistic message, such as that their grades do not determine their value and there is still time left to improve the grades. By changing the inner dialogue the person may feel more empowered to take action and work towards doing better in school rather than admit defeat and do nothing. In this way CBT could target internal dialogue to help a person make important behavior changes.

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    • Ashley Torres
      Sep 07, 2022 @ 18:26:46

      Hi Rylee, Reciprocal determinism reminded me of the CBT triangle we learned about. As you stated, an individual’s actions and environment affect one another. It is the same case in the triangle because thoughts, behaviors, and feelings all influence each other. Even though they are two separate concepts I think it will be important to analyze a client’s CBT triangle as well as the reciprocal determinism because of the emphasis on environment. For example a child may act out due to their environment like you said or could be their thoughts.

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    • Teresia Maina
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 22:31:23

      Hi Rylee, great post! I agree that reciprocal determinism is similar to the CBT triangle of behavior, thoughts, and feeling. I like how you mentioned that in CBT targeting internal dialogue can lead to behavior change. By recognizing a pattern of negative thought we can see how it affects our behavior and feeling. Internal dialogue reminds me of Beck’s idea of automatic thoughts which influence a person’s behavior.

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  3. Ashley Torres
    Sep 07, 2022 @ 18:05:29

    Bandura described Reciprocal Determinism as an interaction between personal, behavioral, and environmental determinants. In other words, a person’s behavior is driven by and can be changed by personal factors and the environment. It is also important to note that behavior can change the environment which then can create an endless cycle of influences. Environments can essentially be created or refuted by the different controls in behavior and emotions. For example, an employee at a large company may have trouble completing their tasks due to low organization skills and motivation. His self-esteem will drop, and he believes he is not fit for the position. His performance and attitude start to decline which then causes trouble with other employees and may get fired. Here the employee’s performance was declining due to his emotions and motivation which then caused his environment to turn on him. Bandura theory on self-efficacy is a person’s belief in their ability to succeed. Self-efficacy is how a person controls their functioning and situations that affect their life. Someone who has high self-efficacy has the power to face obstacles and make choices that will help them overcome their troubles. These individuals focus on tackling the problem and moving on rather than avoiding their troubles. People with high self-efficacy will make mistakes but they are able to recover quickly and will not put themselves down. Individuals with low self-efficacy seem to have higher levels of stress and rates of depression. This is explained by the lack of motivation to overcome obstacles in their life and their beliefs of failures. They do not believe they have the power to overcome their troubles and often engage in avoidance. I believe CBT is related to self-efficacy and Reciprocal Determinism because therapists help their clients become aware of how their thoughts, behaviors, and feelings all affect each other. In a session a therapist may work with a client to come up with coping methods and empower them to make positive changes in thoughts and behavior. This will improve their self-efficacy and help them minimize their stress. Reciprocal determinism works similarly to the CBT triangle because the interlocking interactions influence each other just like the triangle. If a client’s behaviors and thoughts are supporting their goals, not only will it positively change the environment but also change their feelings.

    Elli’s Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) focuses on changing a person’s belief on themselves and their life. This therapy aims to acknowledge self-defeating behaviors like guilt and change the client’s way of thinking. REBT believes a client is impacted by their thoughts on a situation and not the situation itself. On the other hand, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is finding patterns of behaviors or thoughts that relate to their current state. These are similar because CBT works off REBT, but CBT focuses on the root cause of the problem while REBT aims to alter the client’s belief in themselves.

    Meichenbaum described internal dialogue as the voice inside an individual’s head. Internal dialogue heavily influences a person’s choices and behaviors. Internal dialogue also influences a person’s cognitive structures. In a way we look at the function of the coping procedures and how they relate to their cognitive structure. Our internal dialogue influences how we behave because our thinking patterns are possibilities of action. It is based on our sensory data and definite systems of concepts and judgements. Internal dialogue is related to CBT because they are automatic thoughts which get recognized in CBT. Exploring a client’s automatic thoughts, where they come from, and altering unrealistic thoughts is part of the therapy. To help the client, they need to be aware where their judgment is coming from and realize the reality in the situations rather than believing exaggerated judgements.

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    • Rylee L Ferguson
      Sep 08, 2022 @ 12:54:20

      Hi Ashley, I really liked the phrase you used ‘endless cycle of influences’. I think it really captures the ideas surrounding reciprocal determinism. Your example further illustrated how this can take place in a real life situation. It is interesting to think how CBT could be applied in the situation you described. Perhaps a therapist could help the employee recognize their behavior before it led to their termination, and support them in taking action to improve their performance or speak up to better the work environment.

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  4. NikkiAnn Ryan
    Sep 07, 2022 @ 20:18:09

    In Bandura’s view of social learning theory, determinism refers to the factors that influence behavior, including personal characteristics and situational or environmental conditions. Reciprocal determinism refers to the way that behavior, personal factors, and environmental factors all act as mutual causes, or determinants, of each other. This means that behavior is not the result of only personal or inner factors nor is behavior solely influenced by environmental factors. Instead, personal and environmental factors are continuously interacting with each other to determine behavior. An environment may exert influence on behavior, but individuals also partly create their environment. Therefore, people do have some control over their environment and behavior. This is connected to the CBT concept that individuals are active agents of change in their life. Cognitive behavioral therapy proposes that cognitions affect behavior and that individuals can change the way they think to achieve a change in behavior. Bandura viewed self-efficacy as an individual’s belief in how well they can carry out the behaviors required to deal with a situation. An example of self-efficacy is if someone believes they will successfully be able to complete their graduate program. An individual’s perception of their self-efficacy determines the type of activities they will pursue, how much effort they will exert, and how long they will persevere in stressful situations. Following with the previous example, an individual who believes they will be able to complete their graduate program may pursue a quality program, put in a great deal of effort, and persevere despite numerous stressful exams and papers. An individual’s perception of their capabilities to deal with situations influences their thought patterns and emotions which is connected to concepts of CBT. Cognitive appraisals of a situation and one’s ability to deal with it influences the individual’s behavior. If the perception of self-efficacy is low, the individual may not act effectively even though they may have the capacity to carry out the actions required by the situation.

    Rational emotive behavior therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy both focus on the way an individual perceives and interprets an event or stimuli and how it affects their behavior. Additionally, the theories behind each of these therapies suggest that individuals have control over their behavior because they have control over the way they think. It is proposed that individuals create negative, unhelpful emotions as a result of their thought patterns. REBT and CBT work to change underlying beliefs so that individuals can change their thinking and the emotions associated with these thoughts, therefore, both therapies incorporate aspects of cognitive restructuring. REBT differs from CBT in its philosophical emphasis and Ellis’s goals of REBT such as self-interest, self-acceptance, and self-direction, among others. REBT also differs in some of its terminologies. For instance, when discussing the concepts of REBT, Ellis proposes that counselors should “debate” with clients and “dispute” their irrational beliefs. CBT, on the other hand, proposes that counselors should help clients “modify” or “restructure” their unhelpful thoughts. This distinction in terminology makes a difference when working with clients because “debating” and “disputing” give the impression that the counselor is going against the client’s thoughts and beliefs as if they are on opposing sides. Whereas terms like “modify” and “restructure” are used in CBT which emphasizes collaboration between the client and counselor to identify and change their thinking patterns.

    Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” refers to the inner speech one has with oneself. It acts as a self-communication system in which an individual internally speaks to and listens to themselves. Internal dialogue affects behavior change and is associated with three sources of function including the role of interpersonal instructions, cognitive factors related to coping with stress, and physiological effects. Both the concept of internal dialogue and cognitive behavioral therapy emphasize the connection between cognition, emotion, and behavior and their role in behavior change. An individual’s internal dialogue influences what they attend to, how they appraise events, what they attribute to their behavior, and their expectations about their ability to cope with stress. Further, how an individual appraises a stressor influences how they respond to the stress. This is relevant to CBT which supports that individuals can change the way they appraise situations to change their behavior.

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    • Bekah Riley
      Sep 09, 2022 @ 09:08:13

      Hi NikkiAnn!
      I thought you did an amazing job at explaining reciprocal determinism. You very thoroughly went over how personal factors, behaviors, and the environment all have a mutual effect on one another. I liked how you then gave a specific example of how behavior is not only determined by just personal factors or just the environment, but it is influenced by both. In addition, I liked that you added how Bandura emphasized that people do have some form of free will in terms of their actions. I also really enjoyed how you explained the similarities between reciprocal determinism and CBT by mentioning that both concepts illude to the idea that people are active agents or have the ability to make choices and promote change in their own life! I thought that was a great way of tying the two together! Your explanations of rational emotive behavior therapy and internal dialogue were very clear and thorough as well! I really enjoyed reading your response.

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  5. Tuyen Phung
    Sep 07, 2022 @ 22:14:00

    Reciprocal determinism refers to the idea that behavioral, personal, and environmental factors are related to one another and function as interdependent determinants of each other. With that being said, people are influenced not only by their personal factors but also by environmental factors. The process occurs continuously. To what extent each factor influences depends on personal characteristics and circumstances. Therefore, people can have the ability to control their behavior due to arranging the environment and altering cognitions. Self-efficacy refers to people’s belief that they can manage their behaviors required by specific circumstances. When people have a high level of self-efficacy, they are more likely to have high goals and a high level of consistency in pursuing it. Both the constructs of reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy are related to CBT by cognitive factors. In reciprocal determinism, personal factors manifested in cognition can influence their behavior and their view of the environment. In self-efficacy, cognition plays a role in people’s perception of their own capacities and expectation.

    At gland, Ellis’ REBT has some similarities with CBT. First, there is an interaction among cognitive, emotional, and behavioral factors in events. When there is one change, followed by changes in other factors. Second, cognitive distortions are focused on in the REBT of Ellis as well as CBT. Their distortions are seen as courses of psychological disturbances. Therefore, both techniques focus on managing cognitive distortions to deal with mental disturbances. Finally, rational and irrational thoughts and beliefs can be the focus of both techniques. Differently, REBT, I think, explains disturbances in the forms of dogmatic “musts”, “have to’s”, and “ought’s”.

    To put it simply, internal dialogue is a dialogue that a person has in their own thoughts. They talk to themselves internally. When a person faces a situation, his/her internal dialogue instructs himself/herself to deal with the situation in either a positive or negative manner. For example, a person can have two contradictive directions of thoughts at a time. Their internal dialogue leads them to a final conclusion or decision. Related to CBT, internal dialogue can relate to it automatic thoughts that influence significantly the way people behave and express emotions.

    Reply

    • Yoana Catano
      Sep 08, 2022 @ 10:02:29

      Hi Tuyen, I also found difficult to see a lot of differences between Ellis and Beck, their divergences are no very remarkable since they both are considered part of the CBT’s therapies. I also agree in the dogmatic “must” that you refer to, which I think is because his therapy is more directive, the therapist is presented as an expert instead of a cooperative way to produce change as it is in CBT.

      Reply

    • Bekah Riley
      Sep 09, 2022 @ 09:18:21

      Hi Tuyen!
      I really enjoyed reading your response! I thought you did a great job at explaining reciprocal determinism and how personal factors, behaviors, and the environment are all continuously interdependent determinants of one another. I thought the example you gave on how individuals can manage their behavior by altering cognitions or changing their environment was very informational. The concept of altering cognitions really ties into the idea of how CBT works to help individuals alter their cognitive distortions. In addition, I really liked how you emphasized the strong focus on cognitive distortions in both REBT as well as CBT. I thought you did a great job going over internal dialogue as well! Overall, great response!

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    • Patricia Ortiz
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 21:21:16

      Hello Tuyen, I like how you highlight the relationship between CBT and automatic thoughts taking into consideration the internal dialogue and I agree with you that they could significantly affect the way people behave and express emotions. Automatic thoughts happen spontaneously and generate discomfort. They are usually brief and can send a message that may not be rational. For example: “I can’t” or “I won’t be able to”. Also, automatic thoughts can be polarized “black and white” without reaching a middle or rational point. That’s why REBT and CBT are important as you mentioned earlier. Through CBT we could use cognitive restructuring to learn to identify those irrational or maladaptive thoughts.

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  6. Patricia Ortiz
    Sep 08, 2022 @ 01:31:37

    (1) In your own words, explain your understanding of Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy? How are these constructs related to CBT?
    According to Bandura’s theory, three factors—the individual, the environment, and the actual behavior—affect how we behave. The first one involves traits like personality, convictions, and distinguishing qualities. It also covers if the person has previously received praise for a particular behavior in a particular setting. If so, they’ll probably repeat that event. The environment includes the physical environment and stimuli, such as other people or objects in the environment that influence the behavior. The environment can influence the frequency of a behavior or the probability that we will continue to do something. The behavioral aspect is what the person is doing, or what they are saying, which may or may not be reinforced, depending on where they are and who they are with.
    Self-efficacy can be defined as the set of beliefs that we associate with our abilities and aptitudes, and it is closely related to self-esteem, although it is not precisely the same. While self-esteem is fundamentally how we feel about who we think we are, self-efficacy is what we think we know about what we can achieve if we put our minds to it;
    In Albert Bandura’s theory, it is argued that self-efficacy is the main construct to perform a behavior since the relationship between knowledge and action will be significantly mediated by self-efficacy thinking.
    To be able to have self-efficacy, first, it will be necessary to promote an appropriate physical state by reducing stress and negative emotions; promoting optimism, and moderating our emotional reactions to difficulties. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy helps to recognize those negative or unhelpful thoughts and behavior patterns and also changes the way we think and behave. Reciprocal Determinism relates to CBT because there is a correlation between the way we think and behave. CBT It is based on the relationship between thoughts, emotions, physical sensations, and behaviors. All these areas are interconnected and influence each other.

    (2) What are a couple examples of how Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is both similar to CBT and different from CBT? Explain each thought. (I realize you are still learning the basics of CBT – give it your best shot based on what you do know.)

    According to REBT, our thoughts, feelings, and actions are interconnected. To understand the impact of events and situations that people experience throughout their lives, it is necessary to look at the beliefs that people hold about these experiences and the emotions that arise as a result of those beliefs. One of Ellis’s key insights is the belief that people are unaware that many of their thoughts about themselves are irrational and negatively affect how they conduct themselves in relationships and life situations. For example, a student is frustrated because they did not have the expected grade in one of their assignments. The adverse event is the “not expected grade” in the assignment. This student’s thinking is that if they do not get “A” they are a bad student, and the consequence is feeling sad and depressed. The work carried out by an REBT therapist together with the client will consist of identifying what the irrational beliefs are, and then challenging these beliefs in order to reinterpret the experience of the same client from a more convenient perspective.
    In this case, the therapist will help the student to realize that there is no evidence that having a bad result in their assignment is something terrible or that it means they are a bad student. While it is desirable to get good results at school, failure to do so does not make you worthless.
    On the other hand, Cognitive behavioral theory seeks to replace negative feelings toward oneself by reinforcing positive attributes about a person. For example, a therapist practicing CBT might acknowledge that their client is struggling with a certain assignment, but that does not make them a failure. They would then emphasize all of the ways in which the client is smart in other subjects or in other areas, reinforcing positive traits. The difference would be that the first seek self-acceptance and CBT seeks reinforcement. REBT and CBT are similar because they help individuals identify negative and unfavorable patterns and learn how to interrupt them.

    (3) Share your understanding of Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” and its relevance to modern CBT.
    Meichenbaum views behaviors as outcomes of our own self-verbalizations. He explains how internal dialogue affects behavior with an example of two people with the same speaking skills but with different levels of speech anxiety; During each one’s speech, some people leave the room. The person with a high level of speech anxiety thinks that the people left because their speech was not so good or because they were bored. In contrast, the person with a lower level of speech anxiety thinks that those people left because of different external situations. This example illustrates that how a person perceives the stressor, has an impact on how one responds to stress.
    Meichenbaum focuses on identifying dysfunctional self-talk in order to change unwanted behaviors, once a person recognizes their negative self-talk, they can begin to change it. His Cognitive-behavioral modification (CBM) is an approach to CBT that focuses on changing negative self-talk and life narrative to positive self-talk.

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    • Yoana Catano
      Sep 08, 2022 @ 10:38:53

      Hi Patricia, I’d like to highlight some of your comments in the understanding of self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism. You bring the connection between knowledge and action, and the mediation of self-efficacy, this is a good statement about the need for self-efficacy in Bandura’s theory. Perceived efficacy from other experiences or vicarious experience is related to behavioral changes, this cognitive processing motivates the action and serve as a good mediator for behavior and environment.
      Also, the conception of emotion in Bandura, is related to arousal under stressful situations, you have brought the physical state as necessary for self-efficacy, and I think this is all connected to the reciprocal determinism the expectation that comes from cognitive processing of self-efficacy that determine the performance and perseverance than an individual set in a task, and the response from the environment.

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  7. Yoana Catano
    Sep 08, 2022 @ 10:01:32

    (1) Bandura (1977a, b) explains the sequential interchange between personal-behavioral-environmental relationship. His conception of determinism is related to the reciprocal relationship between these triad’s elements and no solely by biological or other lineal explanations like reinforcement. Making some emphasis in the conception of freedom and free will that are not opposite to determinism.
    Bandura provides examples in how environment doesn’t not act by itself (a book doesn’t teach, if it’s not read), but he also considers the environment as influenceable by behavior. Behavior is also influenced by internal personal factors (as he calls cognitions), for example expectations in a person, influence the way they behave. Other example is when different individuals are in a deep pool, the environment could be the same, as well as similar behaviors, but the way they process cognitively is different, it ends up in a different experience as a reciprocal interaction. This is a good example in the relationship with CBT and the formation of trauma.
    Then again, Bandura explains the personal/individual choice, as diverting from other theories that explained behavior as dependent of stimuli or internal forces, the conception of cognition is defined by freedom of choosing options, according to the expectations. This lead to the concept of self-efficacy.
    Bandura presents the internal processing of human learning, based on the expectations that are created by observing consequences in others or by personal mastery experience. The reinforcements create expectations that anticipate benefits or negative consequences, then the individual self-evaluate the reactions either anticipating satisfaction or dissatisfaction. This capacity to represent future consequences brings motivation, that promotes the acquisition or persistence of a behavior. Bandura also states that although the self-efficacy itself doesn’t produce the behavior, the stronger the perceived self-efficacy the more efforts are made towards the desired outcome. Other sources of self-efficacy are verbal persuasion and physiological and affective states (exhortative and emotive), Bandura does not consider this last two sources as strong determinants of behavior, however they are also considered as another source of self-efficacy expectations.
    Finally, the self-efficacy introduces the comprehension of social learning with cognitive mediation, the perception of the self-efficacy, expectations and the way individuals appraise their arousal, are a big step to understand that human behavior is directly related to their cognitions as explained in CBT. Individuals are no longer reacting to stimuli and consequences, the behavior is not just an outcome, they are processing the knowledge and interacting with the environment in a continuous reciprocal interchange. He brings a clear definition of the reciprocal influence processes that explain psychological functioning, and for CBT this theory, presents the base to understand environmental and behavioral interaction.

    (2) According to Dobson (2010) Ellis’s theory define psychological problems based on irrational belief systems that respond to activating experiences and generate consequences, these irrational beliefs are innate due to human tendency to think or behave irrationally. Ellis and Harper (1976) mention that emotions come from ideas, thoughts, attitudes, or beliefs and no merely unconscious desires, or just on their own. It concludes that people can live happily if they discipline their thinking.
    Similarities with CBT are human behaviors and emotions are result of cognitions. But in the technique, it could be some differences.
    I will try to explain my understanding of REBT and CBT similarities and differences, using an example from Volungis (2019): A college student walks in the highway and say hi to a peer but they don’t respond and keeps walking in the opposite direction, the person thinks “wow she completely ignored me. She’s probably annoyed and doesn’t want to be associated with me”. In Both CBT and REBT, these ideas precede the behavior and the performance in class later, they both understand the importance of cognitions in emotions and behavior and the need in therapy to modify these cognitions.
    In CBT the client in the example will discuss automatic thoughts and try to find evidence of what they think: What was in your mind? what were your feelings? How they impacted your school? Is there evidence that support your thoughts or it is your perception? is there a possibility that your thoughts are wrong about what the other person’s behavior? Would you feel differently if you think different? and the therapist will conduct the session to find the mind-reading distortion and the client’s understanding of the dysfunctional behavior as a consequence of the dysfunctional thinking. Beck in CBT has an empirical view, the therapist works collaboratively understanding that clients play an active role, they are not passive recipients of insight (Volungis, 2019).
    In REBT the technique is more analytical, trying to challenge the irrational idea: Then, you are saying because she didn’t reply when you said hi, she doesn’t want to associate with you? Is it normal for you to feel rejected when someone doesn’t respond? why do you anticipate other’s thoughts? Is it easier to avoid the conversation than calling and ask what happened? Do you need acceptance to succeed in class? Ellis has a philosophical view of the ABC (Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence) as explained in Dobson (2010), which makes the therapist the expert and the one that would teach and conduct the change.

    (3) Meichenbaum’s theory comes from the observation of self-talking in schizophrenic patients (Dobson, 2010) he observed better performance when patients talked positively or healthier than others. This brought the idea of self-regulation as the internalization of external verbal commands, that are transformed with time in self-instruction. His treatment includes training in skills related to self-instruction and self-reinforcement. Meinchenbaum (1977) criticizes the intellectual cognitive change and suggest a more integrative way to change that includes motivational, emotional and behavioral, Meichenbaum states that people are not always thinking before they act, habits or learned rituals influence the social interactions.
    The relevance for CBT lies in the use of this knowledge on self-regulation, as a part of cognitive restructuring, again, based on the idea that thoughts and emotions are connected to behavior, and the maladaptive functioning needs to be evaluated in the way thoughts are affecting emotions and behaviors. As explained by Beck (2021) cognitions occur at three levels: automatic thoughts, core beliefs and mood and behaviors. They are also autonomous and the client can see them as plausible and reasonable, as it is expressed in Meinchenbaum theory (Meinchenbaum, 1977).

    References
    Bandura, A. (1977a). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
    Bandura, A. (1977b). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Beck, J. S. (2021). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond (3rd ed.). Guilford.
    Volungis, A. M. (2018). Cognitive-behavioral therapy: Theory into practice.
    Ellis, A., & Harper, R. A. (1976). A new guide to rational living. North Hollywood, CA: Wilshire Book Company.
    Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

    Reply

    • Sam Keller
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 21:26:14

      Hi Yoana!

      I really liked your explanation of Bandura’s theory of reciprocal determinism. It is true that the environment influences our behavior, but I also find it interesting that our behavior also influences our environment. Think of being at work. If your coworker is super negative all of the time, that is going to have a different effect on the workplace environment than if they were constantly positive. It is a bidirectional relationship. I also really liked how you described self-efficacy as a person’s perception of whether or not they can do something. It is important to separate that from an ability to do something. Especially with depressed or anxious clients, there is sometimes a fine line to walk in determining what they genuinely can’t do and what they think they aren’t capable of. That is something I would probably have them do some personnel experiments on so they can better determine that line for themselves. The old adage ‘you never know until you try’ comes to mind. Great post, very well thought out!

      Reply

  8. Sam Keller
    Sep 08, 2022 @ 12:37:50

    1) Reciprocal determinism is the interplay between behavior, the individual, and environmental factors. Individual factors, such as thoughts, feelings, and innate ability, can influence behavior. Let’s take an example of a young girl who is interested in soccer (interest is an individual factor). Because of this interest she joins a soccer team and learns to play soccer (behavior). The environment of the soccer team reinforces and increases her initial interest in playing soccer and causes her to practice soccer more (individual doctor and behavior). However, imagine if this girl started off by having to go to her older sister’s soccer games. This environment could cause an interest in soccer which could then lead to her wanting to learn how to play and joining a team of her own. Or maybe this girl helped her older sister practice soccer and then developed an interest. Maybe the girl had no interest until her parents made her join a soccer team and she found out that she was actually interested in soccer by being in that environment. These influences don’t go in a single direction, they play off of each other in multiple directions. Self-efficacy is also saying that your belief in whether or not you can do something also affects your behaviors.This has a huge impact on what we chose to do, our beliefs in personnel capability, and to some extent the outcome of whatever we choose to do.

    2) Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a method of identifying and disputing irrational thoughts. It often uses the ABC principle of activating situation/trigger, belief/negative thought, and consequence of that negative thought. REBT works to challenge and identify irrational thoughts/beliefs and either restructure or radically accept them. This works very similarly to CBT in that we are identifying thought patterns and then looking to change emotions/behavior by addressing these thought patterns. However REBT has a much stronger focus on challenging the logic of irrational thoughts and using radical acceptance to reduce the distress of irrational thoughts when they occur. It focuses on dealing with and judging the validity of irrational thoughts when they happen.

    3) Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” references the running stream of thought most people have going in the back of their mind. This includes concepts such as self-talk and personal perceptions. For example, if a person is afraid of learning to ride a bike, their internal dialogue might look soemthing like: this is really hard, there is no way I’m going to be able to learn how to do this, I’m going to look stupid, this isn’t worth it, ect. Where this blends with modern CBT is when we look at the influence thoughts have on behaviors, which then influence emotions. If the internal dialogue is negative, just by having that negative internal dialogue you are decreasing your chance of success because you are sabotaging yourself before you even start. For example, a person has a negative internal dialogue about learning to ride a bike. This might lead to them doing little to no practice at bike riding, which then results in them feeling negative and like their thoughts about their potential failure were justified. Increased self-awareness and cognitive restructuring are tools we can teach in order to help combat a negative internal dialogue, which then has an impact on behaviors and emotions.

    Reply

    • Rylee L Ferguson
      Sep 08, 2022 @ 13:01:43

      Hi Sam, I enjoyed your soccer example which helped demonstrate how tangled the interactions between behavior, environment, and individual motivation can be. I also think your discussion on internal dialogue effectively showed how powerful it can be in determining success. The negative thoughts can doom us before we give ourselves a proper chance. On the other hand, positive self-talk can propel us forward and motivate us to keep going even after initial failures. I think recognizing the power our thinking patterns have on us can motivate us to pursue having a more positive internal dialogue.

      Reply

    • Teresia Maina
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 22:30:37

      Hi Sam, overall amazing post! I really liked how your example of reciprocal determinism shows how intertwined these factors are but also many different scenarios could spark the individual factor. I also think you did a great job explaining “internal dialogue” and through your example, you showed how patterns of negative thought can hinder our performance. I really enjoyed reading your post!

      Reply

    • Kat
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 23:19:57

      I enjoyed your thoughts on Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” greatly. Your bike riding example made a lot of sense, and really highlighted the consequential behavior-thought cycle that arises from such maladaptive thought patterns. When somebody adamantly believes that they cannot do anything, then they will likely do nothing. Behavior activation is another crucial tool that we can utilize, in addition to cognitive reappraisal, as future clinicians to attempt to counteract such negative thoughts. For example, in CBT we may have someone practice riding a bike twice a week when they have been known to think that “this is really hard, there is no way I’m going to be able to learn how to do this, I’m going to look stupid, this isn’t worth it”. Instead of that maladaptive thought being the primary concern, we may encourage our client to come up with a positive line to think to themselves after each attempt. For example, “I am trying something that I have hardly ever practiced and should be proud,” or “it will take time and effort to feel more skillfully competent bike riding”. This way we can encourage out clients to have a greater sense of self-efficacy while they practice getting out of their comfort zone in a healthy fashion.

      Reply

    • Tom Mandozzi
      Sep 11, 2022 @ 01:40:50

      Hi Sam! I really liked your example about learning to ride a bike. It was helpful to apply the concept of Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue to this example because it emphasizes how our internal dialogue can impact our motivation and behavior. If we tell ourselves we might fail at a given task, we will feel less motivated to put in the practice and engage in behaviors that might lead to success. Our self-talk is so important when it comes to accomplishing goals and this is super important to consider in the context of providing treatment interventions and developing appropriate goals for our clients. Thanks so much for this insight!

      Reply

  9. Amanda Bara
    Sep 08, 2022 @ 13:32:24

    Bandura’s social learning perspective known as reciprocal determinism is described as a mutual interaction between behavioral, personal and environmental factors. An individual’s behavior is determined by personal and situational influences. The unique interactions between personal and environmental factors are what influence behavior to present in specific ways. The reciprocal influence process involves a cycle of these influences which changes one’s behavior and the environment endlessly. These reciprocal processes are not solely based on behavioral contingencies as they also involve thoughts and emotions. One example of a reciprocal process as I understand Bandura to explain it is when children act out at school. There are several factors that could be influencing a child to act out at school and different environments that may be playing a role. For example, a child who is bullying others at school may be acting out because of personal attitudes or feelings about their home environment. Therefore, the child receives negative attention from school administrators which in turn leads them to be reprimanded at home. This starts a reciprocal process or cycle of the child acting out and developing negative feelings towards themselves which makes them act out more. Bandura states one’s self efficacy is formed by psychological procedures in both the level and strength. An individual’s expectations of perceived personal efficacy or achievements define how they cope and face challenges that are presented to them. Self-efficacy comes from four sources of information which include performance accomplishments, verbal persuasion, vicarious experience and physiological states. Again, there are a number of factors that determine how an individual faces obstacles or aversive experiences. When looking at these constructs and comparing them to CBT we can see many similarities. Particularly these concepts involve behavior, emotions and cognitions like that of cognitive behavioral therapy. There also is a deeper cycle of processes going on that include a variety of influential factors. It is apparent that there are relationships between cognitions, emotions, and behaviors that affect how an individual reacts or copes with certain experiences. Bandura provides a great explanation of how there is a cycle between these three factors and that there is not always a specific linear relationship as they all work together.

    Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) as explained by Albert Ellis is a type of psychotherapy that relies on resolving behavioral and emotional problems that individual’s face. It is similar to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as it identifies thoughts that are maladaptive and works to change them into more helpful or beneficial thoughts. Both types of therapy focus on how individuals have control over their thoughts, emotions and behaviors which can be changed. Although both therapies are based on the same ideas the way counselors are instructed to go about bringing change is different. In REBT, Ellis describes that counselors must be more direct with the client by disputing and debating their thoughts/beliefs. On the other hand, CBT works on restructuring and modifying the thoughts in order to create more adaptive patterns of thinking.

    Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” is defined as an individual’s inner speech that is affected by many factors including cognitions, physiological responses, and interpersonal reactions. Internal dialogue are conversations that people have in their own minds and it affects how one behavior outwardly. The way an individual thinks about a given situation and converses about it in their mind will ultimately affect their emotions and behavior. This is similar to CBT as the thoughts or beliefs one has influences the way they feel and act. Someone’s internal dialogue could mean the difference between them expecting failure or success. For example, if someone completed an interview at a big corporate office for a high achieving job and internally converses with themselves saying “I embarrassed myself there is no way I got that job…I can’t believe that I thought I could make myself look good… I do not fit in there”, they may start to feel incompetent and not follow up with the company after the interview. This in turn makes that individual doubt themselves and not initiate getting the job that they wanted in the first place. This internal dialogue starts a cycle of thoughts, emotions and behaviors that are maladaptive for the individual and cause more harm than good. Like CBT there is a pattern of interaction between these factors that distort one’s view of themselves. CBT works on changing these thought patterns and beliefs into adaptive responses.

    Reply

  10. Sarah Kendrick
    Sep 08, 2022 @ 13:43:08

    Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism include the continuous reciprocal interaction between behavioral, cognitive, and environmental influences as there are no independent or direct causes/influences. An individual’s environment affects one’s thoughts which affects their behavior which further affects their environment (and so it continues). Individuals are not controlled by their environments but they also are not completely free (but still have free will), however, they do still have influence over their environments/behaviors. As for self-efficacy, this refers to an individual’s belief of how well they can execute a behavior (their ability) required by a particular situation. An individuals’ perceived self-efficacy further influences the goals they make and the risks they are willing to take to achieve said goals. Individuals further have expectations about how well they can successfully execute a behavior as well as estimate how a specific behavior will result in an outcome. In regards to CBT, the indirect and lack of independent causes of influence on behavior, cognition, and environment are also applied to this practice (mentioned later as well). While there are certainly influences, individuals still do have the power to change the effects as well as how they influence others/their environment (individuals are not controlled by these influences). As for self-efficacy and CBT, there is also relation to the idea that individuals will essentially achieve what they believe they can achieve. If an individual does not believe they are capable of making a change, they lack the motivation to achieve the goal. If they further do not believe that their behavior or change in behavior will produce a good or desired outcome, that can also diminish motivation in completing the set goals. It is important to help individuals to change their perceptions to a more “realistic” perspective but they must be open to doing so and must generally, must believe in themselves and their abilities.

    One example of how REBT is similar to CBT is the idea that effective therapist cannot think for their clients, rather, they teach their clients to “think straight” and to think for themselves so as not to be dependent on the therapist or others. This is similar to CBT in that individuals are also taught how to think independently and are not instructed or told how to think/feel or what to do – individuals are guided. REBT also includes the utilization of homework assignments and self-management techniques. CBT also utilizes homework assignments between sessions to further encourage individuals to independently learn and utilize skills/techniques, including self-management techniques or coping skills that are typically taught and practiced during sessions. REBT also generally recognized the similar basis of CBT, that feelings significantly overlap with thoughts and that changing one’s thoughts may lead to change in one’s feelings (involving the changing of core beliefs). One major difference between CBT and REBT is that in REBT, it is acknowledged that emotions are caused biologically, physically, and cognitively, but the focus is on cognitive causes. REBT acknowledged that they cannot effect the biological causes as this is typically medication that is prescribed and those who practice REBT are not prescribers. It is also believed that physical causes act more as a diversion and that these activities do not fully help or “cure” as they help individuals feel better as opposed to actually getting better. In CBT, it is believed that the mind and body are connected (as well as that the way we think affects how we feel and how we behave and that this is a cycle – not that one only affects another) and that there is significant benefit to engaging in physical activity/behavioral activation as well as changing cognitions (ex. Cognitive restructuring). There is not an intense biological/medication focus, but there is recognition that medications can indeed help and often are most beneficial in conjunction with therapy.

    Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” focuses on three main functional values of inner speech, including interpersonal instructions (problem-solving), cognitive factors on stress responses, and effects of instructional sets on psychological reactions. Generally, behavior can be mediated through the rules, instructions, and principles created through internal dialogue. Cognitively, the idea is that how an individual responds to stress largely depends on how one appraises the stressor and their ability to cope with the stress (individuals essentially put their own meaning on the event). Physiologically, individuals learn by changing their inner thoughts about the physical signs of, for example, anxiety (ex. Sweaty palms and increased respiratory and heart rates). Instead of identifying physical signs as debilitating and fearing these signs, individuals can change their inner thoughts about these signs by recognizing them as indicators that they need to utilize coping skills. Overall, the belief is that if one is going to change a behavior, they must think before they act as the practice of inner speech “deautomizes” maladaptive behavior. CBT also recognizes the idea of automatic thoughts and the importance of recognizing these and taking the time to reflect and change the thoughts/behaviors. CBT also recognizes that it is not necessarily the events individuals go through themselves that make them feel, act, or think a certain way, rather, it is how the individuals view the situation and how they let it affect them that determines this. I also believe that there are similarities in the view of the relationship between inner thoughts and physiology. In the CBT sense (I think anyways!), there is also a goal to recognize and identify physical symptoms and to change how they are approached. For example, I once assisted one of my individuals through a situation in which they were very angry. Talking through the moment only escalated things so we moved towards identifying their physical symptoms: increased heart rate and body temperature, urge to hit something, shaking, sweaty, restlessness, etc. After identifying these, the individual was asked which symptom was most disruptive (they identified the urge to hit something and increased heart rate) and we worked with them to reduce these symptoms so that they could eventually calm down enough to reflect on their thoughts and feelings more “rationally” (yay mindfulness!). Now when they feel themselves start to develop these symptoms, they recognize why they’re happening and engage in coping skills to reduce their effect.

    Reply

    • Tuyen Phung
      Sep 09, 2022 @ 21:23:44

      Hi Sarah,
      I like the way you explained the similarities and differences between REBT and CBT. I have not thought of how independent clients are in their own thoughts and feelings in both approaches. Also, homework is seen in both therapeutic approaches. It is interesting that you found differences in the way emotion caused biological, physical, and cognitive perspectives, but the focus is on cognitive perspective in clients according to REBT. I also think that in CBT, there is a balance of the circular among behavioral, emotional, and cognitive perspectives without emphasizing specifically one perspective.

      Reply

    • Sam Keller
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 21:18:33

      Hi Sarah!

      I really like your explanation of automatic thoughts. I think that it is really important that you mentioned physical signs of stress, specifically heart rate and sweaty palms, because of how that sensation is perceived by those with anxiety. These psychological processes can be seen as threatening, and tying that into the concept of changing perceptions of events seems like it would be a useful CBT intervention. I also really liked your explanation of reciprocal determinism. I find it very interesting to see how concepts such as ‘degree of free will’ were incorporated into Bandura’s theory. This makes sense because, if I remember correctly, he was a big believer in the idea that the degree of perceived efficacy in addition to environmental factors influenced our cognition. Environmental factors are sometimes not changeable. This makes it uplifting to think that even if a client’s environment isn’t ideal there are still ways to increase their chances of successful change.

      Reply

  11. Tayler Shea
    Sep 08, 2022 @ 14:16:53

    My understanding of reciprocal determinism is that a person’s behavior is determined by the environment that they exist in and the characteristics of their personality and thoughts. Reciprocal determinism states that these three factors determine one another. For example, a client may be experiencing negative feelings regarding their relationship. You soon realize that they are living with their partner in a chaotic environment with a lot of instability. This instability causes your client to feel overwhelmed and anxious which causes them to lash out on their partner. The lashing out (behavior) is causing arguments, and is a result of their unstable living situation (environment) and the clients anxiety (personality). Reciprocal determination relates to CBT because in CBT we also recognize that outside influences and personal thoughts play a large part in how someone is behaving. In addition, if we can change the clients’ behaviors or their response to certain stimuli in their environment, then their behaviors, along with their personal beliefs will likely begin to positively change. As a therapist, if you teach the client skills to manage their anxiety (personality) or skills/resources to change or manage their environment (living situation), then the fighting within their relationship (result of their behavior) is likely to improve. I understand Banduras self-efficacy theory as being an individual’s belief that they can or cannot achieve something. For example, if your client is an avid runner and has the physical ability to compete in large scale races, but they have low self-efficacy then they will probably not register or compete in races, holding them back from their running goals. They may have the ability to complete a long run (I.e., a half marathon) but if they do not believe in their own abilities, and they think that they would not succeed, then they will likely not sign up to try. This theory relates to CBT because it is an example of how our thoughts and cognitions can influence our behaviors. If your client had high self-efficacy, they would likely register for the half marathon, knowing that it would be a challenge, but believing in themselves that they would complete the run. In CBT, a therapist would likely work with the client to help them recognize their low self-efficacy and identify the cognitions associated with that. Once they are identified, a CBT therapist would likely teach the client skills that would restructure and challenge the thoughts that are causing the low-self efficacy, which would then empower the client to register for the half-marathon and believe in their abilities to finish. This would increase the client’s self-efficacy in the future.

    My understanding of Ellis Rational Emotional Behavior Therapy is that you must identify negative beliefs and thoughts that a client is having and change those negative self-thoughts which will then result in a change in behavior. This is like CBT because CBT also recognizes the importance of changing a client’s maladaptive thoughts to then influence their behavior and result in a better emotional state. Both REBT and CBT also focus on the client’s cognitive and emotional reaction to a situation and work to influence the way that the client reacts or thinks about a stimulus. One way that REBT differs from CBT is that REBT is heavily focused on client’s perception of a problem rather than analyzing the problem and how the client reacts to the problem and then working towards changing the client’s behaviors to influence their thoughts and cognitions. Additionally, CBT is less focused on unconditional acceptance of self and more focused on utilizing skills to adjust and accept feelings, leading to more positive behaviors. Overall, I think that both approaches are similar in many ways, but Ellis is more focused on a client’s negative thoughts and changing those, whereas CBT sometimes focuses on changing a behavior to influence thoughts but sometimes also changing thoughts to influence behavior. CBT seems more flexible in my opinion.

    Meichenbaum’s Internal dialogue is referring to the automatic thoughts that one hears and listens to within their own mind. This dialog has three functions: Problem solving, stress response, and elicitation of physiological reactions. Often, the internal dialogue creates a self-fulfilling prophecy for the client. Meaning, when I client is experiencing a negative internal dialogue, they will listen to the dialogue and trust those thoughts. I experienced a personal example of this in my own life recently. I recently traveled to Tennessee and went on a 10-mile hike to a waterfall. I did not realize that the majority of the hike was actually rock climbing through a river and not hiking on a path (I should have looked into this better….lol). Halfway through the hike I began telling myself that I couldn’t do this anymore, I was too tired, and that the people who I was with must have thought I was going to slow and that I was not strong enough to be there. Once I started telling myself those things, I believed that I couldn’t do it anymore and became slower, more tired, and got upset with myself. My close friend took a break with me and asked by I was so discouraged. Once we started talking through the situation, I started to believe in myself that I could finish. Once I started telling myself I could do it, it became so much easier for me to keep doing. This is an example of how changing a person’s internal dialoged from negative to positive can make a huge impact on their performance and behaviors. This relates to CBT because the core belief of CBT is that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors all influence one another. In CBT, we believe we can influence the way that a person feels and behaves by changing their cognitions. We also believe that we could influence a person’s cognitions by modifying behaviors. We often teach our clients skills to modify their automatic negative internal dialoged to help them feel better. Internal dialogue plays a large part in facilitating and maintaining change in behaviors and cognitions.

    Reply

    • Rachel Marsh
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 19:39:40

      Hello Tayler,

      I enjoyed reading your post. In your discussion about inner dialogue, I appreciate how you integrated your own personal experience. When talking to yourself in a negative way, you began to believe that you could no longer continue the hike. But once you spoke to yourself in a positive way, you began to believe that you could finish the hike. This illustrates how inner dialogue changes not only your thoughts, but your beliefs and self-efficacy.
      Not only is self-compassionate and positive inner dialogue something that we can instill in our future clients, but something we can also aspire for in ourselves. Overall, great post!

      Reply

    • Sarah Kendrick
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 22:02:54

      Hi Tayler! I really enjoyed your use of examples and appreciate that they differ from the texts, they really add to your response. I also agree with your statement that CBT appears to be more flexible, perhaps that’s why it has been proven to be so effective with various problems. I also appreciate your emphasis on the internal dialogue and automatic thoughts (as well as your personal example), it really is incredible how recognizing these patterns can affect individuals as a whole.

      Reply

  12. Tom Mandozzi
    Sep 08, 2022 @ 14:46:05

    (1) Reciprocal determinism broadly suggests that thoughts and behaviors are not driven or determined just by a person’s internal processes nor just their environmental factors, but a combination of these aspects. Essentially, a person is constantly engaged in a reciprocal interaction of personal and environmental determinants that govern their life. Building upon this concept, the text explains that “people’s expectations influence how they behave, and the outcomes of their behavior change their expectations.” I think as counselors, it will be critical to have a comprehensive understanding of this concept as it relates to CBT interventions. If a therapist is educated on this reciprocal process, then they can effectively implement interventions to support their clients in managing expectations and how cognitions might impact behaviors. The text further expresses that a significant weakness of traditional formulations is that they treat behavioral dispositions and the environment as separate entities when in fact, each determines the operation of the other. CBT has a strong emphasis on action and behavioral components of change, and I think this construct relates to CBT in that treatment can prioritize implementing environmental changes, cognitive and social supports, and action steps to control some aspects of the client’s life. Bandura emphasizes that in this two-way influence process, the environment is influenceable, as is the behavior it regulates. Behavior can create environmental conditions, as well as regulate their impact. Self-efficacy pertains to an individual’s belief that they can adequately carry out the behaviors required of them in each situation. Goal setting and risk taking are aspects related to an individual’s perceived self-efficacy and can serve as a good barometer for the implementation of goals and behavior change in CBT. Motivation is another critical component of CBT interventions and can be addressed with motivational interviewing techniques. Individuals’ efficacy expectation involves the conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcomes, while outcome expectation involves a person’s estimate that a given behavior will lead to specific outcomes. Getting a sense of these expectations as a practitioner of CBT is helpful in developing realistic and appropriate goals that can guide treatment for clients. This is important in the context of CBT treatment, because Individuals who lack self-efficacy are more at risk for mental health diagnoses such as anxiety and depression.
    CBT treatment modalities emphasize the interconnected relationship between thoughts, feelings, and behavior.

    (2) Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) utilizes a humanistic and individualized approach, which is a core component of CBT treatment. In REBT, cognitions, emotions and behaviors are not considered separate psychological processes, but related to one another and in constant interaction with one another. For this reason, REBT and CBT have significant overlap and commonality in this overarching concept of multifaceted interactions that occur across interrelated psychological processes. Both CBT and REBT are guided by the principle that cognitive distortions are a feature of psychological disturbance, and treatment can be implemented as such. The concept that the environment, cognitions, emotions, and behaviors of an individual have reciprocal influence over one another is an integral aspect of both REBT and CBT. A potential difference between CBT and REBT might be that CBT is meant to take place over a more regimented and short-term period, while REBT seems to be more of a philosophical approach to life that may incorporate more long-term treatment interventions and implications.

    (3) Meiechenbaum’s “internal dialogue” refers to the inner voice and dialogue one has internally and how they communicate with themselves. Essentially, this concept involves the way an individual perceives and responds to events both internally and externally. For example, I work with a client that has a significant fear of bees. This client will not shower or engage on other activities of daily living and personal hygiene because of the fear of being confronted with bees and other bugs. The internal thoughts, feelings, and concerns that he has results in avoidance of certain behaviors, like attending to personal hygiene. As somebody who does not have this phobia of bees, my internal dialogue would look very different from my clients, and ultimately impact my behavior differently. By implementing CBT interventions that target treatment of these internal thoughts and dialogues, the client may be able to develop adaptive behavior changes and improve functioning across many areas of life. Modern CBT seems to put great emphasis on cognitive restructuring and behavior change which can be heavily influenced by an individual’s internal dialogue.

    Reply

    • NikkiAnn Ryan
      Sep 08, 2022 @ 22:52:46

      Hi Tom,

      I appreciate the example you used in your discussion of internal dialogue regarding the individual that you work with who has a phobia of bees. I think your example demonstrates how the messages one communicates to oneself affects every aspect of their life, including activities that many people engage in without much thought, such as showering. In your client’s case, their basic hygiene suffers as a result of their thoughts that they are internally communicating that they will be confronted by bees or other bugs if they engage in their activities of daily living. Whereas, another person who does not share that same fear will have an entirely different internal dialogue and subsequently experience different emotions and behaviors. I am looking forward to learning more about CBT interventions that can be effective in identifying unhelpful thoughts and modifying individuals’ internal dialogues.

      Reply

    • Sarah Kendrick
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 22:08:51

      Hi Tom! I appreciated your inclusion of the importance of motivation, especially in terms of collaboratively setting realistic and achievable goals with individuals. I also appreciated your identification that CBT is meant to be more “short-term” while REBT is a longer-term and more philosophical approach. I think that’s yet another reason CBT has become so effective and sought-after!

      Reply

  13. Kristin Blair
    Sep 08, 2022 @ 15:43:59

    Bandura tells us that reciprocal determinism is essentially an explanation for the way that people act. He explains how it is based on 3 key elements; the individual themself in terms of their personality traits and unique characteristics, and who they are as a person. The individual’s environment or physical surroundings and stimuli. This could also be other people or objects in the environment as well. Lastly, the person’s behavior, what they are doing or saying.

    Bandura describes self-efficacy as one’s belief in their own capabilities to control what happens in their life or in a particular situation. That self-efficacy can provide a foundation for personal accomplishment, motivation, and general well-being. The individual’s beliefs in their self-efficacy are developed by interpreting, mastery experiences (experience from taking on new challenges and being successful), vicarious experiences (observing others being successful in completing a task), social persuasion (receiving positive verbal feedback while participating in a hard task), and emotional states (the individuals current physical/mental state can influence how they feel).

    These constructs are related to CBT because one component seems to influence another and vice-versa. The idea becomes clear that if you can shift the thinking around one component, change should occur in the others. Like CBT, you can change any of the three components to create change in another component. For example, maybe changing one’s behavior could lead to a change of feelings and, ultimately, a change in thoughts.

    REBT, like CBT, is based on a theory that your thoughts control your thoughts and behaviors. However, unlike CBT, REBT claims that individuals are only affected by their thinking around situations and events, as opposed to the actual situation itself.
    CBT, however, believes that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all connected. Therefore, CBT gives us more options regarding what we can examine and “tweak” to change unhealthy patterns and bring positive change to the individual.

    Meichenbaum focused on the power of “internal dialogue” and identifying dysfunctional self-talk in an attempt to change unwanted behaviors. I would say that this relates to CBT by way of having to be aware of your negative thoughts or negative self-talk to create change. Like CBT, the individual needs to become aware of the negative thought that is causing the unwanted feelings and behavior to begin working on changing that negative thought pattern to create positive change in their feelings and behaviors.

    Reply

    • Rachel Marsh
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 19:32:44

      Hello Kristin,

      I loved reading your post! Specifically, I like how you related self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism to CBT. You bring up a great point when you mention that once you adapt a client’s thinking, subsequent change should occur in other areas (ex. Behavior). In this point, you do a great job highlighting reciprocal determinism which Bandura argues that thoughts effect behavior, but also that behavior effects thoughts (Bandura, 1977).

      I also like how you explained Meichenbaum’s article and related the idea of internal dialogue to CBT. The way we talk to ourselves can be viewed as cognition, and if we can teach our clients to be kind to themselves with their internal dialogue, with CBT would result in positive behavior change.

      Overall, great post!

      Reply

    • Tom Mandozzi
      Sep 11, 2022 @ 02:00:54

      Hi Kristin, I really liked the way you differentiated CBT and REBT from one another, as I found there to be a significant overlap between the two treatment modalities. I agree that both types of treatment are very similar, but that CBT seems more helpful in providing opportunities in terms of examining and changing behaviors and maladaptive patterns. Ultimately both treatment options seem helpful in establishing behavior change that is so central to CBT. Great post and insight here!

      Reply

  14. Teresia Maina
    Sep 08, 2022 @ 21:50:42

    From Bandura’s social learning perspective, reciprocal determinant is when an individual’s environment, behavior, and personal factors affect one another. For example, if a student is acting out in school, that student does not like school leading to them acting out in class this results in the teachers disliking having the student in the class and creating a restrictive environment. This example shows that reciprocal determinant is a continuous process in which each factor affects the other. Bandura’s self-efficacy theory is an individual’s belief in their ability to manage their behavior in a particular situation. A person’s self-efficacy is developed based on four sources performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Performance outcome is when an individual’s previous experiences influence their ability to perform a task. Vicarious experiences individuals compare their competence to another person which can lead to the development of low or high self-efficacy. Verbal persuasion is when a person receives positive or negative verbal feedback about their performance. Physiological states a person experiences emotional arousal and how they perceive it influences their efficacy, for example, a person with high self-efficacy would view their arousal as an energizer to complete their task. Reciprocal determinants remind me of the CBT triangle in which a person’s thoughts influence their emotion which then influences their behavior.
    Ellis’ REBT clinicians work with clients to identify and change negative thoughts in order to change their behavior. This is similar to CBT because we help the client recognize maladaptive thoughts and behavior patterns in order to learn how to change their behavior and adopt new coping strategies. REBT also utilizes homework to continue to teach clients how to observe their own feelings and emotions independently. Similarly, CBT also uses homework to practice techniques taught during sessions. Both REBT and CBT help clients acknowledge and change distressing ideas, but REBT put more emphasis on the idea of acceptance.
    Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” refers to an individual’s dialogues one has in their head. A person’s internal dialogue impacts how they perform a task. For example, a person with low test anxiety would view students who turn their exams fast as students who know nothing about the exam and wishes them the best. While a person with high test anxiety would start to worry more saying to themselves that they will never finish resulting in increasing their anxiety even further. It’s also important when talking about “internal dialogue” to realize that some people might attribute their performance to external (failure was caused by something else) or internal (accept that part of the reason they failed was due to them) factors. This relates to CBT because we know that thought, feeling, and behavior all influence each other. Recognizing that there is a pattern of negative thoughts can leading to changing those thoughts which will influence our behavior and feeling. Internal dialogue also relates to Beck’s idea of automatic thoughts which influence a person’s behavior.

    Reply

    • NikkiAnn Ryan
      Sep 08, 2022 @ 23:07:05

      Hi Teresia,

      I like the example you used at the beginning of your discussion with the student who dislikes school which influences their behavior (acting out) which then influences their environment (creating a more restrictive setting). These factors would continuously influence each other because the restricted environment would then lead to more thoughts about how the student does not like school which would influence more behaviors, and so on. This is a great demonstration of how individuals are “partial architects of their own destinies” as Bandura would say. This student has some control over their behavior and their environment because they partially created a more restricted setting in their classroom. However, once the more restricted setting is in place, they then had less control over their environment due to the restrictions they created for themselves. It is interesting to go through different examples of how personal factors, behavior, and environment continuously influence each other!

      Reply

    • Amanda Bara
      Sep 09, 2022 @ 11:52:09

      Teresia,
      I enjoyed reading your discussion post and thought that you really integrated the concepts in a complete way. I like your example of reciprocal determinism and think that viewing all the factors that impact an individual’s behavior is so important to fully understand why they are doing the things they are. This made me reflect on my personal job as a behavior technician as sometimes we view maladaptive behavior from just the surface when there may be other factors influencing what is really going on. You did a really nice job at explaining the sources of self-efficacy and helped me to better understand those components. Nice Job!

      Reply

    • Patricia Ortiz
      Sep 10, 2022 @ 20:50:03

      Hi Teresia, I like how you explained that in REBT clinicians work with clients to identify and change negative thoughts in order to change their behavior and that this is similar to CBT because we help the client recognize maladaptive thoughts and behavior patterns in order to learn how to change their behavior and adopt new coping strategies. This is what clinicians do with Cognitive distortions (erroneous ways we have of processing information). Knowing how to identify them will help us to have a clearer mind, to develop more realistic and, above all, positive attitudes.

      Reply

  15. Rachel Marsh
    Sep 08, 2022 @ 23:25:20

    Question 1

    Reciprocal Determinism

    Reciprocal determinism suggests that behavior, personal characteristics (e.g., thoughts, emotions) and environmental factors influence one another. This means that individuals are both an object and a master of their own environments. In his conception of reciprocal determinism, Bandura (1977) identifies two dimensions which comprise reciprocal determinism; environmental determinism and personal determinism. Environmental determinism defines how the environment and external stimuli impacts behavior (Bandura, 1977). Personal determinism is the influence of the individual’s personal characteristics (thoughts, emotions) and behavior (Bandura, 1977). In personal determinism, Bandura (1977) argues that personal characteristics (thoughts , emotions) and behavior both influence the environment independently, but also impact each other.

    Bandura (1977) points out that theoretical orientations emphasizing a unidirectional explanation for environment-behavior interactions tend to endorse a variation of either environmental determinism or personal determinism. Social cognitive theory is unique in that it integrates aspects of both and argues that there is a bidirectional relationship between the environment, person, and behavior. For example, Bandura developed his theory of reciprocal determinism in response to several prominent theories at the time which emphasized a unidirectional relationship between behavior, personal characteristics, and the environment.
    In his explanation of reciprocal determinism, Bandura (1977) highlights how one can distinguish this construct from other frameworks that were prominent at the time. He argues for example that behaviorists tend to endorse environmental determinism by arguing that individuals are only an object of the environment and their behavior results from contingencies that the individual does not have control over. This neglects the influence of the individual’s ability to become aware of the consequences of their behaviors and intentionally engage in behaviors with more desirable consequences and avoid undesirable ones. In contrast, Bandura (1977) argues that humanists tend to endorse personal determinism in that people are the sole controllers of the environment and the environment has minimal influence over individuals. This neglects the impact that the previously mentioned contingencies and other environmental factors have on the individual.
    Overall, the social learning theory integrates both schools of thought by acknowledging that the environment influences the individual, but also that the individual influences the environment.

    Self-Efficacy

    Bandura (1977) argues that self-efficacy is the belief of an individual that they possess the abilities necessary to perform behaviors warranted by certain situations. Self-efficacy differs from self-esteem in that self-esteem involves attributing a positive or negative appraisal to the self (ex. Feeling good or feeling bad about oneself) and self-efficacy focuses on ability and motivation (Bandura, 1977). When applying social learning theory to therapy, self-efficacy is arguably more beneficial than self-esteem in the ability of self-efficacy to increase coping abilities. Bandura (1977) argues that the strength of one’s beliefs in their abilities tends to impact their decision to attempt to cope or not to cope with certain situations. For example, individuals with greater self-efficacy tend to cope more adaptively, be flexible, persistent, and committed compared to those who have lower self-efficacy.

    On a cognitive level, Bandura (1977) highlights how self-efficacy is determined by multiple factors, but largely depends on cognitive appraisal of efficacy expectations. Efficacy expectations are the belief that individuals can behave in a way conducive to producing desirable outcomes. When an individual appraises events as opposing efficacy expectations, our self-efficacy may decrease or remain unchanged in subsequent experience. But when an individual appraises events as aligning with efficacy expectations (I.e., successful performance) our self-efficacy increases in subsequent experience. To illustrate this point, Bandura (1977) points out that doing things with ease indicates ability, thus increasing expectations. But when things require more effort, individuals are more likely to appraise that situation as lacking ability, thus decreasing efficacy.

    Reciprocal Determinism & Self Efficacy in CBT

    Both reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy are evident in modern CBT. Dobson & Dozois (2010) identify three key assumptions of CBT: 1.) Cognitive activity affects behavior 2.) Cognitive activity may be monitored and altered 3.) Desired behavior change may be effected through cognitive change. Both of Bandura’s constructs are evident in these three assumptions.
    The first assumption stems from evidence suggesting that cognitive appraisal impacts the response to those events, thus highlighting the value of changing cognitive appraisals adaptively (Dobson & Dozois, 2010). One such example of cognitive activity impacting behavior is self-efficacy. The way we appraise events as previously highlighted determines our self-efficacy, subsequently impacting our behavior in that situation. Moreover, Bandura (1977) emphasizes the benefit of altering cognitive appraisals of events to increase client’s self-efficacy. The second assumption emphasizes how we have the ability to evaluate and understand cognitions. This assumption aligns closely with the development of reciprocal determinism. As previously highlighted, many theoretical orientations, especially Behaviorism and Psychodynamic frameworks overlook the impact of cognition on behavior. In response to these theories, Bandura and other scholars argued that we can not only evaluate, but also understand our thoughts. By using this information, we possess the ability to control our subsequent behavior and how we respond to the environment. This draws on reciprocal determinism which argues that our behavior impacts the environment and our environment impacts our behavior (Bandura, 1977).
    The third assumption of CBT mainly emphasizes how contingencies can establish and maintain behavior. But also argues that there are other ways to affect behavior change, specifically through cognition. This assumption draws on both reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy. Regarding reciprocal determinism, this assumption highlights how CBT acknowledges the role of cognition on behavior. This is where self-efficacy is also applicable to this assumption. Self-efficacy is one source in which CBT aims to draw on as an agent to cultivate behavior change. This is done by changing the cognitions related to one’s abilities.

    Question 2

    REBT and CBT have several similarities. Firstly, both acknowledge the relationship that thoughts and emotions have on behavior. In his development of REBT, Ellis identified what he termed the “ABCs of “REBT”. This is a paradigm in which he argues that psychological disorders are the consequences of irrational beliefs that the individual holds about activating experiences (events) (Dobson & Dozois, 2010.) Likewise, CBT follows a mediational model in that cognitive events impact behavioral change, but also that behavior indirectly impacts cognition (Dobson & Dozois, 2010). This contention stems from Bandura’s theory of reciprocal determinism, which argues that behavior, personal characteristics (thoughts, emotions) and environment influence and are influenced by one another (Bandura, 1977).

    Another shared characteristic of REBT & CBT is that both rose in response to psychodynamic and behavioral theories. Both psychodynamic and pure behavioral theories argue that individuals exercise little to no control over their thoughts. In contrast, both CBT and REBT are premised on the belief that we can access and control our thoughts (Dobson & Dozois, 2010; Harper & Ellis 1976). Moreover, this contention is the mechanism of change by replacing unproductive thoughts with productive ones to promote wellness. More specifically, REBT aims to promote qualities of commitment, control, flexibility, and self-acceptance by replacing rational thoughts with irrational ones (Ellis & Harper, 1976). CBT aims to change cognitions by cultivating the belief that behavior change will follow change in cognitions (Dobson & Dozois, 2010).

    One of the hallmark traits of REBT distinguishing it from other forms of CBT is the area of theory it stresses (Dobson & Dozois, 2010). REBT places a greater emphasis on emotion whereas CBT places a greater emphasis on cognitions (Dobson & Dozois, 2010; Harper & Ellis, 1976). REBT proponents argue that emotions are not independent of thoughts, but rather thoughts precede emotions. While CBT involves a similar argument, the goal of REBT is to change the emotions that people experience. Harper & Ellis (1976) argue that irrational beliefs tend to precede inappropriate emotions. They define inappropriate emotions as ones that inhibit an individual’s ability to achieve their goals and irrational beliefs as beliefs that lack logic. REBT emphasizes emotions by teaching the individual how to monitor their emotions in a non-judgemental manner and reflecting on how certain events provoke certain emotions. Harper & Ellis (1976) argue that eventually, this will help the individual have more control over their emotions in deciding what to feel in what situations. While CBT acknowledges the importance of emotion, it places a greater emphasis on changing cognitions to promote change. CBT stresses maladaptive beliefs, behavioral strategies, and maintaining variables that characterize mental health challenges (Beck, 2021).

    Question 3

    After reading Meicheinbaum’s article on internal dialogue, I understood internal dialogue as the way people interact with themselves in terms of what they want, how they feel, how they think, and how they act. When reading the article, it made me think about how the things you think to yourself can impact your subsequent emotions and behaviors. For example, if an individual internally “speaks” to themselves in a negative way (e.g., I am a failure) repeatedly, they are more likely to feel poorly about themselves and be less likely to put effort into the things they do.

    In this way, internal dialogue can be related to CBT by comparing internal dialogue with cognitions. By changing one’s cognitions, behavioral change will likely ensue. Likewise,
    Meichenbaum (1977) argues that internal dialogue also precedes behavior, and that by adapting internal dialogue one can facilitate behavior change. One quote that stood out to me in the article that illustrates this is “I believe that if we are going to change a behavior that we must think before we act” (Meichenbaum, 1977, p. 210). Meichenbaum goes on to argue that this way of thinking encompasses inner dialogue and that adaptive behavior stems from one’s ability to think prospectively. Overall, in terms of CBT, this article emphasized how inspiring change in clients can be done by assessing and altering how they interact internally.

    References

    Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavior change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.

    Beck, J. S. (2021). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond (3rd ed.). Guilford.

    Dobson, K. S., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2010). Historical and philosophical bases of the
    cognitive-behavioral therapies. In. K. S. Dobson (Ed.), Handbook of cognitive-
    behavioral therapies (3rd ed.). (pp 3-38). New York, NY: Guilford Pres

    Ellis, A., & Harper, R. A. (1976). A new guide to rational living. North Hollywood,
    CA: Wilshire Book Company.

    Meichenbaum, D. (1977). Cognitive-behavior modification: An integrative approach. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

    Reply

    • Amanda Bara
      Sep 09, 2022 @ 11:48:25

      Rachel,
      You did a great job at identifying and explaining these key concepts in depth. I like how you organized your thoughts in this discussion and I think you particularly did well at reflecting on how Bandura’s ideas relate to CBT. After reflecting on self-efficacy I realized how much it really influences our behaviors and motivation to complete goals. I never thought of self-efficacy as being a fundamental part of CBT but I think that it could be really beneficial in therapy. I enjoyed reading your explanation of Meichenbaum and I also reflected on my own internal dialogues when reading this text. I am wondering how much it matters whether these thoughts are conscious or unconscious and also how dreams may play a role in our internal dialogue/imagery.

      Reply

    • Tuyen Phung
      Sep 09, 2022 @ 21:33:59

      Rachel,
      Your answer gave a clear point about reciprocal determinism, self-efficacy, REBT, and internal dialogue. I would like to discuss your point of internal dialogue. It is right that self-statement, or self-talk direct partly people’s actions. Internal dialogue can influence greatly emotions and behaviors. That’s why people are always advised to have a positive attitude in their lives for better well-being. Regarding CBT, I think that internal dialogue has something to do with automatic thoughts too. When people have automatic thoughts, they realize them in internal dialogue. The way the thoughts influence people’s emotions and behaviors depends significantly on the outcome of internal dialogue. Overall, internal dialogues reflect the cognitive part of CBT.

      Reply

  16. Vanessa U.
    Sep 19, 2022 @ 21:50:27

    3 Thoughts on (1) In your own words, explain your understanding of Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy? How are these constructs related to CBT?
    Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism suggest, ‘actions’ to be best described as, the fluid interplay between one’s own unique feelings/emotions, environmental factors, and behavior.
    Self- efficacy is a way in which our own, perceived cognitive assessment of ability, effects the chances we take and/or decisions we make.
    These constructs relate to CBT based on the shared idea that, our thoughts have the ability to influence the outcome of behavior.

    Reply

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Adam M. Volungis, PhD, LMHC

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