Topic 1: Social Learning & Cognitive Theories {by 8/27}

There were multiple readings due last week (Bandura) and this week (Ellis & Harper; Meichenbaum; Lazarus & Folkman).  For this discussion, share at least three thoughts: (1) In your own words, explain your understanding of Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy?  How are these constructs related to CBT?  (2) What are a couple examples of how Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is both similar to CBT and different from CBT?  Explain each thought.  (I realize you are still learning the basics of CBT – give it your best shot based on what you do know.)  (3) Share your understanding of Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” and its relevance to modern CBT.


Your original post should be posted by the beginning of class 8/27.  Have your two replies posted no later than 8/29.  *Please remember to click the “reply” button when posting a reply.  This makes it easier for the reader to follow the blog postings.

28 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. Madi
    Aug 23, 2020 @ 18:12:38

    1. Reciprocal determinism is how behavior, personal factors and the environment all interact with one another. Self-efficacy is a person’s belief that he or she can complete the task or behavior. If a person has low self-efficacy it means that he or she does not have the belief that he or she can execute the behavior or task.
    2. After looking at REBT and CBT it becomes clear that there are both similarities and difference between the two. First, REBT is similar to CBT by the fact that they both focus on the cognition of the client and not just observable behaviors. Both are not done with a behaviorists point of view. REBT looks at how thinking and emotions are related, a focus on the cognition. CBT looks at the thinking and appraisals of the client, a focus on the condition. Second, they both seek to challenge negative thought processes. The goal of REBT is to find, and challenge irrational beliefs. The goal of CBT is to find the unrealistic and distorted thoughts which are negatively affecting the client and challenge it. Third, a difference between them is that CBT went further than REBT with the concept of schemas. Schemas are how human beings organize and process information. Fourth, a difference between them is that CBT has a psychoeducation element to it whereas REBT does not. In CBT a counselor is able to educate their client in automatic thoughts, then recognizing those thoughts, these the validity of the thoughts and then replacing those thoughts with realistic thoughts. Fifth, another difference between the two is that CBT help the client identify underlying core beliefs that are causing the client to think this way.
    3. Meichenbaum’s concept of “internal dialogue” still lives on in CBT. Meichenbaum’s concept of “internal dialogue” is very similar to the CBT concept of automatic thoughts. Meichenbaum’s concept of “internal dialogue” is the idea that we talk to ourselves in our heads; that we have the internal dialogue with ourselves. This concept is the beginning understanding of automatic thoughts which are thoughts that occur automatically and quickly. These are thoughts that rapidly run through out mind with little to not control as they are automatic.


    • Allie Supernor
      Aug 24, 2020 @ 19:42:45

      Madi, I absolutely agree with your post! I liked how concisely you spoke about Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue. I had trouble wording my post and your seemed so clear to me. In my post I also spoke about cognitive structuring and the need to take the “blueprinting” into consideration when utilizing modern day cognitive-behavioral therapy.


    • Haley Scola
      Aug 29, 2020 @ 14:13:58

      I thought your definition of self-efficacy was on point and very useful. You pointed out that someone with lower self-efficacy sets smaller goals for themselves. I also thought your point about CBT and REBT being similar being that they don’t simply focus on observable behavior. You did a really great job at explaining the similarities and differences and provided a lot of insight.


  2. Allie Supernor
    Aug 24, 2020 @ 19:39:42

    (1) Bandura’s reciprocal determinism is a social view of interactions in the world. There are three components all operate as interlocking determinants of one another. The components act individually and act from one another. The components are behavioral, personal factors such as thoughts and emotions, and environmental factors. Each of these three components influence on another, and depending on where one is in life, sometimes have different weights. This theory plays a role in CBT when an individual is unaware of the reciprocity of these components. For example, one may belief that “everyone is so mean,” but they are not taking into consideration the interactive nature of their behavior and the environment. The individual should focus on how they treat others to better understand how others treat them. In CBT you may have to guide them to think about this give-and-take. Similarly, Bandura’s self-efficacy may be used in cognitive-behavioral therapy. Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief that she/he can successfully execute the behaviors required by a situation. Self-efficacy guides and directs our behaviors because it allows us to set goals and value to these goals. There are two outcomes in Bandura’s self-efficacy. The first is efficacy expectation which is the conviction that one can successfully execute the behavior required to produce the outcome. Basically, this means can one actually execute the behavior. Do they have the skills? The second outcome is outcome expectation which is a person’s estimate that a given behavior will produce the outcome. Both of these things can be utilized in CBT. For example, if someone is dead set on not attending college because they have an outcome expectation that they will fail, without acknowledging and recognizing that outcome expectancy you would not be successful in therapy. Bandura theorizes that behavioral therapies work by enhancing the individual’s sense of self-efficacy (i.e., mastery expectations) and therefore, result in individuals believing that they can cope with the difficult situations that threatened them before.
    (2) Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) was founded by Ellis in 1955. He was not impressed with the effectiveness of former psycho-analytic therapies and used a humanistic outlook to help people maximize their individual freedom, self-interest- and self-control and help individuals live in an involved, committed, and selectively loving manner. This theory is very similar to CBT because cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are not viewed as separate entities, but rather as highly interdependent and interactive psychological processes. A large reason why REBT is so similar to CBT is its views on cognitive distortions. REBT cognitive distortions are all-or-nothing thinking, jumping to conclusions, fortune telling, focusing on the negative, and so on. Just like CBT, there are cognitive techniques to combat these irrational or maladaptive thinking. Some techniques are disputation, debating, and time projection imagery. The behavioral techniques for differentiation between healthy and non-healthy thoughts are desensitizing, flooding, “stay in there” activities, anti-procrastination, and rewards and penalties. Finally, there are emotional techniques, such as humor, self-disclosure, use of stories, and shame-attacking exercises.
    (3) Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue can be broken into three parts. Firstly, is self-instructions operate in interpersonal instructions. Essentially, we talk to ourselves in our head. Secondly are cognitive factors in stress. This is when the individual attending to his/her arousal, via internal dialogue, leads to performance debilitated by anxiety. Lastly, there are instructional sets and physiological effects. This is not the physiological arousal that’s debilitating, but rather what one says to themselves about the arousal that determines one’s eventual reactions. Meichenbaum’s theory on internal dialogue is hugely related to modern day’s CBT. This is true because it is important to address automatic thoughts that are in internal dialogue. These are the thoughts that seem to emerge automatically and really fast. These thoughts come quickly, are hugely based on emotion and oftentimes go away for a while. Similarly, Meichenbaum believes we have cognitive structuring, which is basically blue-prints or scripts for these automatic thoughts. In CBT it would be crucial to pay attention to automatic thoughts and cognitive structures in exercises to change thoughts.


    • Alison Kahn
      Aug 26, 2020 @ 20:24:38


      I completely agree with your explanation of Bandura’s reciprocal determinism. I love your example of how an individual may perceive everyone as being “mean” without realizing the impact of their own behavior on the environment. I think this example perfectly highlights the importance of the “CBT triangle” and emphasizes the impact of Bandura’s reciprocal determinism on modern day CBT.


    • Christopher LePage
      Aug 27, 2020 @ 14:36:29

      Hi Allie, I really enjoyed how you broke down these questions and how detailed they were! With the first question I enjoyed how you mentioned that with the 3 factors (behavior, personal factors, and environment) were a give-and-take and how this needs to be emphasized in CBT sessions. I also really liked how you broke down the internal dialogue as it helped me further understand the subject. Specifically with cognitive factors in stress can lead people to sometimes work themselves up to the point where they feel debilitated and may not be able to complete the task.


  3. Francesca DePergola
    Aug 26, 2020 @ 18:15:26

    (1) In your own words, explain your understanding of Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy? How are these constructs related to CBT?
    Bandura’s reciprocal determinism involves a social learning view of interaction. Within a person there are their factors such as their thoughts and feelings and wherever this person is, is their environment. A person is thinking or feeling within their environment influences their behavior. Since the three are very interconnected, one could very well influence the other. Self-efficacy is what Bandura described as an individual’s ability to successfully execute behaviors within a situation; it guides and directs behavior. The more a person believes they have this, the higher the goals that they set, and the stronger commitment and perseverance in executing them. These constructs are related to CBT because they both shed light on why a person might behave the way that they do. Once there is more clarity behind the behavior the helper can guide the client to change behaviors in a more adaptable way. For reciprocal determinism, a helper might gather that the environment a client is living in is the root of their anxiety because, per se, their roommate that does not respect their personal space. With self-efficacy, that can be built upon since those who think they lack it tend to be more depressed and anxious as well as have low motivation and perseverance when faced with problems.
    (2) What are a couple of examples of how Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is similar to CBT and different from CBT? Explain each thought.
    Ellis’ REBT is both similar and different from CBT in a few crucial ways. First, a similarity between the two is how REBT and CBT both look at cognitive distortions. Cognitive factors are stressed in REBT, but cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are not viewed as separate psychological processes sort of like Bandura. Both REBT and CBT seek to challenge irrational thinking to modify behavior. Some of these common cognitive distortions can be anything from all or none thinking, jumping to conclusions, emotional reasoning, and so on. Another similarity between the two is that both the founders of REBT and CBT had backgrounds in psychoanalytic therapies but chose to move on from psychoanalytic by creating different therapies like REBT and CBT. There are a few differences between REBT and CBT too. These differences lie within the theory basics such as REBT’s dogmatic beliefs and to hold these beliefs is the heart of the disturbance of thinking. Second, there are some techniques used is REBT that are not in CBT, one that was mentioned was debating versus CBT’s psychoeducational approach. Overall, there is a lot of overlap between these two types of therapies and some minor differences that distinguish the two.
    (3) Share your understanding of Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” and its relevance to modern CBT.
    Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue,” are self-instructions that we speak in our head that essentially operate similarly to interpersonal instructions. Internal dialogue also has cognitive factors in stress that depend on whether or not the person attends to their arousal. An example of this could be speech anxiety, a person with high speech anxiety if focuses on the arousal will act differently in a situation versus a person with low speech anxiety. There are also external and internal attributions related to this aspect of internal dialogue. Lastly, what a person says to themselves about the arousal will determine the reaction to the event occurring. Internal dialogue is very relevant to modern CBT because of the relation to automatic thoughts. Automatic thoughts describe internal dialogue because the thoughts seem to emerge automatically and quickly. Sometimes, people may not realize how much of an effect automatic thoughts have on our behavior or thinking patterns since they can go so unnoticed. CBT is tied to this because a helper needs to understand the automatic thoughts to help a client who might be thinking maladaptively. Once the automatic thoughts are addressed, there are processes that allow the client to redirect the thinking patterns into a more adaptive way.


    • Alison Kahn
      Aug 26, 2020 @ 20:30:37


      Similar to your post about REBT, I also highlighted that unlike CBT, REBT does not necessarily consider cognitions, emotions, and behaviors as separate entities. I think it’s super important to consider these components as reciprocal influences on one another, but I also think that each component should be addressed separately. Specifically targeting a negative automatic thought, for example, could ultimately lead to an adaptive change in behavior. I think that CBT differs from REBT in that it acknowledges each component as reciprocal but also distinctly important.


    • Christopher LePage
      Aug 27, 2020 @ 14:44:28

      Hi Francesca, In the second question I liked how you emphasized the importance of changing irrational thinking to modify behavior, and how this is connected to both REBT and CBT. I also think that this is one of the main components that connects these two concepts. I also enjoyed how you added that CBT offers a psychoeducational approach, whereas REBT does not. This is important to distinguish, because some therapists may feel it is more beneficial for a particular client to receive psychoeducation to help them after their sessions have ended. With the internal dialogue I thought it was great that you mentioned how automatic thoughts need to be addressed. With certain disorders it is so helpful to try and change these thought processes that an individual may have, and may very well be the most important component of the sessions you have with the client.


    • Madi
      Aug 27, 2020 @ 14:53:22

      Hi Francesca,
      I thought you showed a good understanding of Bandura’s theory. I agree with your similarities and though they were very flushed you and clear. But, I found your description of the differences a little unclear. I thought you showed a good understanding of internal dialogue. I thought your examples really helped your answer.


    • Haley Scola
      Aug 29, 2020 @ 14:19:29

      Hi Francesca,
      I thought your definition of reciprocal determinism was very in depth and insightful. I agree with your point about how all three factors are interconnected basically referring to the “double arrows”. I also pointed out the difference between CBT and REBT was REBT focus on the dogmatic beliefs being the heart of the disturbance. Lastly, I thought your example of internal dialogue in correlation to arousal was extremely helpful and provided a lot of insight.


  4. Alison Kahn
    Aug 26, 2020 @ 20:13:05

    1. Bandura’s reciprocal determinism outlines the concept that thoughts, emotions, and behaviors all influence one another in a transactional way. That is, each component can influence the other, and these influences occur in a cycle which does not have any defined beginning or end. An individual’s thoughts can influence his or her emotions, and his or her emotions can, in turn, influence his or her thoughts. The same can be said for an individual’s environment. Each component impacts the other. Bandura describes self-efficacy as an individual’s beliefs about their ability or capacity to execute a certain task successfully. An individual’s belief about the significance or importance of a particular task often determines the psychological impact of executing the task successfully or unsuccessfully, and the motivation or drive to improve. Reciprocal determinism is related to CBT in that CBT focuses on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors as intertwining components of an individual. CBT also emphasizes the importance of an individual’s perception of an event or circumstance, similar to Bandura’s theory of self-efficacy, which focuses on an individual’s perceived belief about whether he or she can execute a task.

    2. Ellis’ REBT is similar to CBT with regard to its focus on changing negative or irrational patterns of thinking. Further, Ellis’ REBT focuses on appraisals and the way in which an individual’s thoughts influence his or her emotions and behaviors. Similarly, CBT addresses both cognitions and behaviors, and their impact on each other. Ellis’ REBT differs from CBT when it comes to terminology. CBT tends to stray from utilizing language such as “debate”, rather, CBT is collaborative process in which both the counselor and the client are attempting to identify negative automatic thoughts, figure out their function, and challenge them. Further, REBT emphasizes the relationship between cognitions, emotions, and behaviors, however, it does not necessarily address each component as separate from the other.

    3. Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue refers to interpersonal instruction that occurs in one’s mind either as a dialogue or as a visual. That is, an individual carries on a “conversation” internally similarly to how they might with another individual. This internal dialogue might consist of appraisals, self statements, and perceptions about a particular event or situation. This inner speech may be a pattern or script, or an automatic thought/image. Further, this internal dialogue may influence physiological arousal, and my also be exacerbated by physiological arousal. Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue is relevant to CBT because CBT focuses on restructuring internal dialogue and replacing negative automatic thoughts. CBT also considers the influence of inner speech and negative automatic thoughts on an individual’s behavior.


    • Madi
      Aug 27, 2020 @ 14:47:36

      Hi Allison,
      I thought you displayed a very clear understanding of reciprocal determinism. I really liked how you broke it apart and clearly explained it. I agree with your similarities in regard to REBT and CBT. I liked how you brought up the type of language that was used, I didn’t think about that. I also agree with your interpretation of internal dialogue.


    • Selene Anaya
      Aug 28, 2020 @ 13:18:33

      Hi Alison! I really enjoyed your explanation about the similarities and differences between REBT and CBT. I also had a hard time kind of separating the two even when creating similarities because they were so similar. Finding differences, however, was especially more difficult and you included the impact of terminology which is an important distinction to make. I knew that the REBT approach was less “touchy-feely” than what I think of CBT to be, but also it is important to note the impact that the terminology used in the therapy session can have on the client’s feelings about the session or willingness to open up. I also failed to recognize the impact internal dialogue has on physiological arousal in my post, but after lecture, it is more clear that that is a key feature of Meichenbaum’s theory.


  5. Allie Supernor
    Aug 27, 2020 @ 11:44:35

    Hi Alison, I love the connection you made with Ellis’ REBT and modern day CBT. I struggled with wording mine because it was almost too similar. They both focus on individual’s thoughts and the influence on his or her emotions and behaviors.


  6. Eileen Kinnane
    Aug 27, 2020 @ 12:46:38

    (1) Reciprocal determinism focuses on how emotions, thoughts, and behaviors all impact each other. To explain, each piece is able to influence another in a way that continuously cycles and transitions. Self-efficacy can be explained as an individual’s beliefs regarding their ability to perform a task. Basically, self-efficacy is what guides or influences a certain behavior. An individual who has high self-efficacy is able to set more challenging goals and stay committed to meeting those goals. These constructs relate to CBT because they both help to explain why a person might exhibit a certain behavior. For reciprocal determinism, a client might be feeling anxious because the environment they’re in could be stressful and, in turn, could cause them to feel anxious. With self-efficacy, a client might have trouble believing they are capable of learning the skills and tools to help them when they are feeling anxious.

    (2) One similarity between CBT and REBT is the focus on cognitive distortions. In REBT, these distortions are all-or-none thinking, jumping to conclusions, fortune telling, and focusing on the negative. Similar to CBT, this is used to challenge negative thought processes. Another similarity between the two is that both practices focus on both cognitions and behaviors and how they have an affect on each other. A difference between CBT and REBT is that REBT does not focus on psychoeducation, where CBT does. One last difference is that REBT is often directive, persuasive, and confrontational, whereas CBT focuses on open-ended questions in order to help clinch reflect on their presenting issues.

    (3) A client’s internal dialogue can be explained as instruction that are spoken inside of one’s head. Internal dialogue consists of self statements, appraisals, and perceptions of a specific situation. It can also at times govern a physical sensation. It is very similar to CBT’s automatic thoughts. These include thoughts that occur quickly through the mind with little to no control.


  7. Haley Scola
    Aug 27, 2020 @ 14:21:59

    1. Bandura views reciprocal determinism as the interactive relationship between behavior (B), personal factors such as thoughts and emotions (P), and environmental factors (E). He describes these three factors as interlocking determinants of each other using “double arrows”. The double arrows indicate that any one of these three may affect the other which may affect the next factor, and so on. Basically Bandura believes that individuals are not driven by inner forces bur rather psychological functions that continuously and reciprocally interact with personal and environmental determinants. Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief that he or she can successfully execute the behaviors required by a particular situation. This perception of one’s self-efficacy influences the goals people set and the risks they are willing to take. The greater an individuals perceived self-efficacy is, the higher the goal they may choose and the stronger commitment and perseverance in pursuing them is. Reciprocal determinism relates to CBT because they both focus on cognitions, behaviors, and emotions are interactive components. Additionally, self-efficacy’s focus on the individuals perceived belief relates to CBT’s focus on an individual’s perception of the event.
    2. Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is similar to CBT in a few keys ways. First, both theories view cognitions (thoughts), emotions, and behaviors as mutually dependent and interactive psychological processes (unlike Bandura) but rather focus on challenging human’s natural inclination to think irrationally and to modify that pattern. REBT cognitive distortions include all-or-nothing thinking, jumping to conclusions, fortune telling, and focusing on the negative. Second, both theories focus on coping skills to battle those irrational thoughts. Some skills are disputation, debating, and time projection imagery. Additionally, there are behavioral techniques and emotional techniques. Some behavioral techniques include desensitizing, flooding, and anti-procrastination. While emotional techniques include humor, self-disclosure, and shame-attacking exercising. The first difference between REBT and CBT is that REBT views the relationship between the counselor as a “debate” where the counselor challenges the client whereas CBT views the relationship as a collaborative process. The second difference is REBT’s belief that the core of the disturbance is the individual’s tendency to create and hold rigid evaluative beliefs (psychological inflexibility) and actual or inferred events. Whereas CBT does not focus as significantly on this.
    3. Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue has ___ functions. The first function is interpersonal instructions where the individual talks themselves through any given task. Second is its cognitive factors in stress such as what we say to ourselves when we become aroused. Such as getting a bad grade on a test and saying “I need to study harder next time” verse “The professor didn’t even teach this”. This may predict if your grade increases on the next test because more internalization of the arousal is shown to improve the outcome. This is due to how one responds to stress is largely influences by how one appraises the stressor, to what one attributes the arousal that is felt, and how one assesses ability to cope. The third function is instructional sets and physiological effects, in other words, it is not the physiological arousal that is debilitating but rather what one says to themselves about that arousal that determines one’s eventual reactions. The next function is “automatic thoughts” which are the thoughts that seem to emerge automatically and extremely rapidly. In order to change behavior, we must think before we act and understand what our automatic thoughts are. This is relevant to CBT because CBT focuses on restructuring internal dialogue and replacing negative automatic thoughts. Additionally, CBT focuses on the influence of this internal dialogue and negative automatic thoughts has on an individual’s behavior.


    • Eileen Kinnane
      Aug 27, 2020 @ 20:27:35

      Hi Haley, I love the examples you provide for #3! It definitely helps me understand this concept more.


    • Brigitte Manseau
      Aug 29, 2020 @ 22:49:22

      Hi Haley,
      In your third response, I like how you went beyond stating the definition of internal dialogue and explained each of the three functions. Knowing the functions of internal dialogue allows for a deeper understanding of the material. It shows you clearly grasp the concept.


  8. Selene Anaya
    Aug 27, 2020 @ 14:22:47

    Bandura uses the term reciprocal determinism to explain the social learning view of interaction. This concept involves three factors which are behavior, an individual’s personal factors such as their thoughts and emotions, and environmental factors. All three can influence each other at different levels and the influence depends on each individual situation. Applying this theory to the little I know about CBT, made me think a lot about the importance of insight. Let’s say, for example, an individual seems to think that no one likes him/her and feels as though people always withdraw from him/her. This individual believes that the environment or the behavior of others is the problem without realizing that perhaps his/her own negative attitude about everything they encounter is to blame. This is where insight in CBT would come into play because the individual will come to realize that their negative attitude is impacting his/her environment and changing those negative thoughts are likely to have a positive impact on the environment and therefore keep more people around. The outcomes of changing one factor of the interactions can impact the other 2, which is the main idea of Bandura’s theory of reciprocal determinism and the model CBT follows when deciding which factor to focus on changing. Bandura’s thoughts on self-efficacy consist of the individual’s perception of their ability to complete behaviors that are required by a specific situation. The perception of self-efficacy has the power to influence motivation and the goals individual’s set for themselves. From what I know about CBT, the value clients place on certain goals in life is very important to understand, so understanding the clients’ perception of self-efficacy for those goals can be helpful in determining which skills need to be strengthened or which areas of behavior need more focus. Self-efficacy is also very important to understand because it can predict the type of goals and motivation the clients will have in their future, and help clinicians to understand how they might respond to adversity.

    Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) and CBT have more similarities than differences. REBT sort of sets the stage for CBT. Aside from the fact that both CBT and REBT don’t believe in the effectiveness of psychoanalytic approaches, they both strongly believe in the impact of cognitive thoughts and how individual’s perceive things. Our perceptions of situations and/or feelings have a strong impact on how we react to the situation, so focusing on this perception in therapy and perhaps offering insight or breaking down the perception and understanding why or what the perception stems from can be especially helpful for positive change. Both CBT and REBT also agree that cognitive distortions are a big part of psychological disturbances. These disturbances can range from all-or-none- thinking, jumping to conclusions, focusing on the negative, perfectionism, etc. When these distortions are recognized, both CBT and REBT have similar techniques to lead the client towards more adaptive functioning such as identifying the irrational beliefs, analyzing and challenging those beliefs, and then modifying those beliefs. Both also acknowledge the importance of cognition, behavior, and emotions. The differences between the two are scarce from what I know right now, but one of the main differences would be the importance placed on psychoeducation in CBT. I know that is a big part of the CBT process, and it seems as though Ellis never mentioned that as a necessity. From the lecture, it also sounds as though Ellis’ approach is more counselor directed, whereas CBT is very collaborative and in fact, most of the work is done by the client.

    It was very interesting to read and learn about Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue because my friends and I love to have conversations about internal dialogue. Reading about it more relating to therapy and how it can influence an individual’s psychological and physiological state was intriguing. The internal dialogue refers to the intrapersonal instructions that individuals have in their heads to themselves. Looking at internal dialogue allows individuals who are using CBT to look at the impact the internal dialogue has on the individual and see if or how it is influencing other outside events or behavioral processes. Learning about this made complete sense, because the thoughts one has about a situation whether it is rational or not, can influence the physiological reactions which can then go on to impact other areas of the individual’s life such as behavior during the situation or performance. The test anxiety example given in the chapter was a good example of this to help clarify. It places the focus on if the individual is attending to the arousal and what their thoughts are about the arousal which would then go on to impacting performance. Recognizing that the individual’s perception of internal or external attributions is important to know because both will result in different outcomes. This goes to show that individuals can have the same physiological cues, but it is the way the individual thinks about it (the cognitive appraisals) that will determine the reaction. CBT focuses on these cognitive thoughts, especially negative automatic thoughts (which come in the form of internal dialogue), and changing them in a way that will elicit more positive behaviors or reactions to situations.


  9. Christopher LePage
    Aug 27, 2020 @ 14:30:20

    1) Reciprocal Determinism is about how behavior, personal factors (such as emotions), and your environment are all interconnected and influence one another. This is extremely important when considering CBT, because a client may not understand how much of these factors can influence one another. For example, a client may be in a new job setting, changing their environment, and may not even realize how negatively the job is impacting their emotions on a day-to-day basis. With self-efficacy it is about if a person believes they can execute the behaviors of a given task. This is important in CBT, especially when thinking about goal-setting. Clients can come into a session ready to tackle on a new career, but may have a distorted belief about whether or not they have the skillset to be efficient in that field.
    2) REBT and CBT are similar in the sense that they are both trying to tackle negative, distorted cognitive thoughts. One way in which they both do this is they both explain how your cognition can impact your behaviors. While CBT shows a interconnected quality between your thoughts, emotions, and behavior, REBT seems to show that they are more independently-based. REBT also comes across as more direct in the approach, whereas CBT seems to work more with the client and almost hold their hand while figuring out what is occurring
    3) Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” is essentially the conversation one has inside of their own head. This internal dialogue can be either negative or positive depending on the individual, and can impact things such as your behavior or your perception on a particular event. This is crucial to CBT as one of the potential treatments is treating this internal dialogue. For individuals who have either depression, anxiety they can almost talk themselves out of going to work or even a social event. CBT helps try to rework these automatic thoughts that we present ourselves in order to get clients into a more positive, beneficial mindset.


    • Francesca DePergola
      Aug 27, 2020 @ 17:47:45

      Hey Chris!
      I really liked the example you give because like Dr. V mentions, people who have a maladaptive way of thinking tend to have a lot of those personal factors, behavior, or environmental elements go unnoticed more so than those who think adaptively.
      I also like your answer to number 3 as it states clearly and concisely what internal dialogue is and how it is connected to CBT. I think those factors are important to mention again because those who think negatively are somewhat unaware of the effect that these thoughts can have. CBT is definitely connected to this idea. Overall, I think you did a great job answering all three questions!


  10. Trey Powers
    Aug 27, 2020 @ 15:03:51

    Reciprocal determinism is the idea that the individual is influenced by the world around them, and vice versa. More specifically, it posits that there are interactions between personal, behavioral, and environmental factors that impact the individual’s thoughts, feelings, and emotions, as well as their subsequent actions. Rather than these three elements acting separately, they instead are continually interacting with each other to influence the individual. An example from the text illustrates this well by noting that a book can exist in the environment, but it will only have an influence on the individual if they interact with it. Similarly, a lecturer may offer knowledge to a classroom, but the students will only absorb the knowledge if they are present and attentive. Self-efficacy is the belief that one is capable of accomplishing a task or engaging in an activity successfully given their abilities and competence at the time. These two ideas are closely related to CBT. First, it is important to understand many different elements of an individual’s life, as many factors have the potential to influence how the individual is feeling. Also, in order to address any issues that the individual is having, the counselor must be aware of them in the first place. Rather than focusing solely on the person and their feelings at the present time, therefore, it is important to get a clear understanding of the individual’s background and current situation outside of therapy. Additionally, it is important to understand how confident an individual is in their ability to change, or engage in any activities or homework that may come from therapy. If they do not believe that they are capable, they may not engage in these acts, or if they do, may expect failure so strongly that they unintentionally sabotage their attempts.

    Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is both similar to and different from CBT. In terms of similarities, both involve arming the individual with various skills that can be utilized outside of the therapy setting to combat negative emotions or thinking. Additionally, both prescribe homework in the form of tasks for the client to engage in outside of therapy to practice the skills that are discussed during therapy. They both also focus on identification of irrational thinking, and encourage the client to reconsider how they perceive certain situations or stimuli. The difference largely appears to lie in the nature of the role of client and counselor. Whereas in CBT therapy is collaborative, and attempts are made to have a relatively even playing field between the two, in REBT, the counselor is seen as someone who is teaching skills, telling the client their perceptions are wrong, and instructing them to engage in different ways of thinking.

    Internal dialogue is, in the most basic of terms, talking to oneself. As we go about our daily lives, we are engaging in dialogue with ourselves about various situations, as well as related to our current feelings and perceptions. This can take the form of talking through a situation in order to preemptively anticipate outcomes or formulate hypotheses, assessing a situation and our response to various stimuli around us, and evaluating the meaning behind certain observations that we make. Internal dialogue is closely tied to CBT because, at its core, CBT is largely focused on one’s internal dialogue. If an individual is constantly engaging in negative dialogue, their emotions and behavior is likely to be negatively impacted. By engaging in CBT, these negative thoughts can be targeted, examined, reevaluated, and gradually changed to be more adaptive and accurate.


    • Francesca DePergola
      Aug 27, 2020 @ 17:54:53

      Hi Trey,
      Your answer to number one was more than sufficient as you went into great depth about reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy. I think you executed how these two connect to CBT well too. I agree with how you linked the two together with CBT and especially your mentioning of activities and homework to enhance an individual’s self-efficacy.
      In your second answer, I really enjoyed your description of the differences, especially with counselors. I think you pointed out something I was thinking but did not mention as it was noticeable that the REBT counselor would help in a different manner than a CBT counselor. Great point!


    • Selene Anaya
      Aug 28, 2020 @ 13:08:35

      Hey Trey! I like how you included the examples that were given in the chapters in your explanation. I think it really compliments the explanation and puts it into perspective for us. When relating the concepts to CBT, I thought it was great that you mentioned the importance of understanding an individual’s background and the situation outside of therapy. It’s cool that we kind of already had a general understanding of these topics and their importance in CBT without really knowing and now we are going more in-depth to the theories and we get to see where the ideas came from. I also acknowledged that a key difference in CBT and REBT was the type of therapeutic relationship! Other than that, it was difficult to find a lot of differences. Now, after lecture, we know it is largely because CBT and REBT are extremely similar.


    • Brigitte Manseau
      Aug 29, 2020 @ 22:20:21

      Hi Trey,
      I agree, the role of the counselor is the big difference between REBT and CBT. How the two therapies approach therapeutic change is drastically different. Also, I liked how you explained internal dialogue in depth. Your explanation made it easy to make connections between CBT and internal dialogue.


  11. Brigitte Manseau
    Aug 27, 2020 @ 15:58:09

    1. Reciprocal determinism encompasses a social learning view of interactions. It involves continuous bidirectional interactions between behavior, personal factors, and environmental factors. For instance, an individual’s behavior may influence his/her thoughts and emotions and his/her thoughts and emotions may influence the individual’s behavior. Self-efficacy is an individual’s belief of that he or she can successfully carry out the behaviors required by a situation. An individual with high self-efficacy will set higher goals and are more likely to accomplish those goals compared to an individual with low self-efficacy.
    2. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) shares a couple similiarities with CBT. First off, the two both focus on the cognitive functioning of the client. They both work towards modifying client’s cognitive distortions such as all-or-nothing thinking (also known as black-and-white thinking in CBT), jumping to conclusions, focusing on the negative, and disqualifying the positive. REBT and CBT both focus on helping clients identify and change their cognitive distortions. However, REBT and CBT approach therapeutic change differently. A cognitive technique used in REBT is disputation where the clinician debates with their clients. On the other hand, CBT uses a similar approach called cognitive restructuring that helps the client modify the client’s cognitive distortions. CBT has a softer approach that does not use debating or arguing with the client.
    3. Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue refers to the dialogue that occurs in an individual’s head. There are three functions of internal dialogue: interpersonal instructions, cognitive factors in stress, and instructional sets and physiological effects. Internal dialogue relates to CBT because CBT focuses on how to restructure an individual’s internal dialogue. An individual who suffers from depression may attribute something good that has occurred in their life to external factors while he or she may attribute something bad that has occurred due to him or herself. In CBT, understanding the client’s internal dialogue helps the client reshape his or her internal dialogue and automatic thoughts.


    • Eileen Kinnane
      Aug 27, 2020 @ 18:40:29

      Hi Brigitte,

      I really like your explanation of internal dialogue! So thorough but also easy to understand


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Adam M. Volungis, PhD, LMHC

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