Topic 1: Social Learning & Cognitive Theories {by 1/20}

There were multiple readings due last week (Bandura) and this week (Ellis & Harper; Meichenbaum; Lazarus & Folkman).  For this discussion, share at least three thoughts: (1) In your own words, explain your understanding of Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy?  How are these constructs related to CBT?  (2) What are a couple examples of how Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is both similar to CBT and different from CBT?  Explain each thought.  (I realize you are still learning the basics of CBT – give it your best shot based on what you do know.)  (3) Share your understanding of Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” and its relevance to modern CBT.

 

Your original post should be posted by the beginning of class 1/20.  Have your two replies posted no later than 1/22.  *Please remember to click the “reply” button when posting a reply.  This makes it easier for the reader to follow the blog postings.

42 Comments (+add yours?)

  1. victoria cestodio
    Jan 19, 2022 @ 14:34:23

    When it comes to understanding Bandura’s view on reciprocal determinism and self efficacy, I understand what he is trying to get at in a way. How I have understood it is that reciprocal determinism is how someone’s behavior influences but also is influenced by both their environment but also their personal factors like their thoughts and emotions. However, we do see how these all affect each other, not just one influences, they all play a part. I think it shows that not only does the environment impact us, but we can also very well impact our own environment. It shows how much control we actually have on our day to day lives. I think this theory is interesting and made me even think of ways this shows up in my own life. In regards to self efficacy, this theory also makes sense and it seems very relatable. Most things in life we need motivation and faith in our own selves to complete something. For example, like you mentioned in the lecture, if you do not have a high self efficacy that you can graduate from the program, that in turn may make the person less motivated and give up easier. I think when someone has more self efficacy in a given task, the person is more likely to complete it. I also like this theory because this also is very applicable to everyday life. Both these constructs can somewhat relate to CBT. When comparing CBT and RD and self efficacy, I see similarities. RD and CBT both involve thoughts and emotions. CBT tries to modify disrupt full thoughts, emotions, and behaviors which all go back to RD. We see in therapy that someone’s thoughts, emotions and behaviors are all correlated and maybe changing someone’s behavior can then influence a change in thoughts and emotions.

    How REBT is different from CBT is that it is a lot less ‘warm’ and does not develop as close to a personal relationship with the client as you would in CBT. CBT puts a lot of emphasis on the relationship and we do not see that with REBT. REBT gives off more of a teaching role rather than someone there to help and guide you. Also, another difference between the two is that REBT is more based in confrontation, pretty much telling someone what to do, but we do not see this is CBT, we see the therapist and client working together. Now, they can have some similarities, one being that they both try to identify negative or unhelpful thought patterns or behaviors that are hurting the individual. They both want to target unhealthy patterns and their goal is somewhat similar but how they approach it and view it is what is very different.

    Meichenbaum’s ‘internal dialogue’ is an interesting theory, however I do think it’s very relevant. I like the example Dr. V gave a lecture about when you are taking a test and students start handing in their test pretty early and that makes you express anxiety or fear and you have an internal dialogue with yourself on what you interpret it as. I think internal dialogues are extremely important to humans and usually it either tries to produce calmness or anxiety (like the example just mentioned). If someone is taking a test and people start handing theirs in, you might say to yourself ‘how did that person finish so fast? They must’ve not known anything” or you would think the complete opposite. Sometimes our minds want to protect us from fear, and other times it produces fear, maybe sometimes to help us perform better. I definitely have a lot of internal dialogue and I can definitely attest that it has positives and negatives. This is relevant to modern CBT because when a client is having negative thoughts and or emotions this is most likely coming from their internal dialogue. Therefore in CBT, if we get at what our clients internal dialogue is like we can better understand how to help and guide them. We are trying to target someone’s thoughts in CBT, which in turn goes hand in hand with their internal dialogue.

    Reply

    • Lauren Pereira
      Jan 19, 2022 @ 21:22:22

      Victoria,

      After reading Bandura’s view on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy, I also understand his thought process and what he is trying to get at. Someones behavior has a lot to do with their environment but it also has a lot to do with their personal factors. There is more that goes into it and you did a nice job explaining this. These aspects do show a lot of control that it has on our lives.

      I like how you explained that REBT comes off a lot less warming than CBT does. It is more of a teaching role whereas CBT builds a better therapeutic relationship with clients. A good similarity is that they are both targeting unhealthy patterns to try to improve this even though their processes to get to those goals are different.

      Internal dialogue proves its relevance. I really like the example you used from Dr. V’s lecture. If therapists are able to identify their clients internal dialogue, then they will have a better understanding of how they can best help them.

      I enjoyed reading your post!

      Lauren

      Reply

    • Madelyn Haas
      Jan 20, 2022 @ 14:43:21

      Hi Victoria,

      Great post! I agree that self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism both play important roles in our lives, even if we don’t think about them. I like your example about self-efficacy and graduating from college. People preconceived notions about themselves and their abilities can either help or hinder them. If someone thinks that they are incapable of writing a convincing paper, they will feel less motivated to do so and will likely write a worse paper than if they had had confidence in their abilities. That is interesting but also unfortunate.

      I think your analysis on the differences and similarities between CBT and REBT are apt as well. I especially like how you focus on the warmth of CBT in relation to REBT. CBT is especially appealing because it is evidence based, collaborative, but not impersonal or cold. I’m sure that is why a lot of us looked into this program.

      Finally, I enjoyed your take on internal dialogue as well. Internal dialogue is such a big part of our lives, but we often take for granted how much it can impact us (positively or negatively). It plays a big role in CBT because a lot of people’s internal dialogues, especially in individuals with depression, seem to hinder people’s abilities to make change.

      -Madelyn Haas

      Reply

    • Tressa Novack
      Jan 20, 2022 @ 21:49:57

      Hi Victoria,
      I really agree with what you have to say about reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy. I agree that reciprocal determinism shows that we do have the ability to have a lot of control over what goes on in our lives. However, I think that many of us do not realize how much control we have. A lot of the time we perceive things as making us feel a certain way, rather than understanding that our feelings come from how we actually perceive the event or environment, and reciprocal determinism points out how our thoughts, behaviors, and environment are a related and repeating cycle. Our understanding of how capable we are will also effect how we view the environment and how motivated we feel in our everyday lives. Like you said, Dr. V. gave a good example of how our self-efficacy in completing this program will affect our motivation and drive to do so. I like how you framed REBT as having more of a teaching role. I agree with this, and I also think that REBT can even come off as argumentative. As we discussed in class, Ellis liked to dispute his clients’ thoughts. This is an interesting way of teaching someone, and I think it could possibly come across aggressively. I like how you pointed out the positives and negatives of internal dialogue. I completely skipped over this when thinking about internal dialogue, but it makes sense. If our internal dialogue is negative or fearful, this is going to have a negative effect. If we are saying positive things to ourselves, this is going to have a better effect. Great post.
      Tressa

      Reply

    • Vanessa Nichols
      Jan 23, 2022 @ 13:23:56

      Hi Victoria.
      I think you made a great response this week. You really had a clear understanding of reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy. Talking aloud about reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy can be easy to understand but not in writing. Banduras’ writing was confusing, so your post helped me understand what he said.
      I feel like self-efficacy is huge for CBT because clients are not just bystanders in their therapy but active participants. If they feel like they cannot get better or do some activity, this will affect their motivation and, in turn, affect their behavior and the possibility for change. People with high self-efficacy and confidence in their ability to respond correctly in a given situation will probably have an easier time making changes because they believe they are right and capable. I think your post did a great job clarifying this message.
      I think you also did a great job comparing REBT and CBT. So basically, what I learned through your post and the readings is that REBT is a type of CBT. However, REBT is not as warm, broad, or person-centered as CBT. REBT can be confrontational and advice-giving, while CBT does not.
      I think your post did a great job explaining these aspects.

      Reply

  2. Madelyn Haas
    Jan 19, 2022 @ 14:52:25

    It is obvious from these readings that Bandura’s ideas of reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy are important in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Reciprocal determinism is the idea that our actions are influenced by both the environment and our personality/thoughts. Not only that, but our behaviors, and thus our personalities, also affect the environment, hence why it is called reciprocal determinism. Self-efficacy, on the other hand, is the idea that people have a belief about how capable they are at doing certain tasks. If they have a high sense of self-efficacy, they may be more likely to do or attempt to do that task. Both of these concepts work well with CBT. In CBT, we want to help people to improve their lives by changing their maladaptive behaviors. To be able to do this, they need to understand how both their thoughts/feelings/personality factors AND the environment play a role in their behaviors. Some people will internalize things and put too much blame on themselves, and some people will externalize things and put too much blame on the environment. We need to teach them that both play a significant role, hence where reciprocal determinism comes in. In regard to self-efficacy, it is extremely important for CBT. If someone has low self-efficacy, they will not feel like they are capable of making behavioral changes. For this reason, it is important to support the client and help them build up their self-efficacy so that they can make the changes they need.

    Much like how Bandura’s concepts are important to CBT, Ellis’ REBT shares some important similarities with CBT. For example, Ellis emphasizes the importance of practice and repetition in therapy which is similar in CBT. Not only that, Ellis emphasizes that people perceive things through their thoughts and emotions. He says that “things do not upset us. We upset ourselves.” In CBT, we also acknowledge that our perceptions of events color how we perceive and react to them, but we probably would not go as far to claim that things do not upset us. Although CBT and REBT do sound extremely similar from my descriptions of them above, there are some key differences. While in REBT some of people’s thoughts and behaviors are considered irrational, in CBT we do not focus on irrational and rational and instead focus on helping people make adaptive and desirable changes to their lives. One final difference is that CBT is, from my understanding, more collaborative than REBT. Instead of the therapist being in the driver’s seat, the client and therapist work together to find a plan that works for the client.

    Finally, Meichenbaum’s concept of internal dialogue is also important in CBT. Meichenbaum, similar to Ellis and Bandura, acknowledges that things other than the environment influence how we act. In this case, our internal dialogue helps us process and respond to the world around us. He uses the example of a speaker with low levels of anxiety and a speaker with high levels of anxiety giving a presentation. If people were to leave in the middle of the presentation, the speaker with high levels of anxiety would likely internalize that and assume the people are leaving because their speech is bad, even if the people are leaving for unrelated reasons. The concept of internal dialogue is important for CBT as well because it reminds us that we do not respond directly to the environment. Instead, we respond to our perceptions of it. With this knowledge, we can help clients shape their perceptions of themselves and the world which can help them make their desired behavioral changes.

    Reply

    • Lauren Pereira
      Jan 19, 2022 @ 21:36:57

      Madelyn,

      Bandura’s view on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy did identify its importance within CBT and I like how you started off your post with this information. Our actions are influenced by more than one act which can be seen through the environment and our thoughts and personalities. It is also important to have some confidence and believe in yourself which comes within self-efficacy.

      Both CBT and REBT share the importance of practice and repetition in therapy which I find beneficial. A difference that was good to have mentioned was that REBT is less collaborative than CBT where the client and therapist work together to find ways of improvement.

      I like your example that you used for internal dialogue. This concept is important to help us process and respond to the environment around us. It is helpful to gain more knowledge on this concept in order to provide better help for your clients. This way, clients will get more help in shaping their own perceptions and their environment.

      I enjoyed reading your post!

      Lauren

      Reply

    • Victoria Cestodio
      Jan 20, 2022 @ 19:21:30

      Madelyn,
      Great post!

      I really like how you mentioned that whether someone is internalizing or externalizing, they are both affecting their environment. I also agree when it comes to self efficacy being supportive of the client is very important.

      I also mention in my post how REBT does not seem as collaborative compared to CBT. Even though REBT and CBT are somewhat similar, the differences are very apparent, like you said.

      On the topic of internal dialogue, I loved the example you used. When I heard that in lecture too I thought it was a perfect way of describing it. Someone’s internal dialogue can tell you a lot about a client!

      Victoria

      Reply

    • Will Roche
      Jan 23, 2022 @ 12:11:03

      Hey Madelyn,

      I think you did a great job explaining the differences between REBT and CBT. But I especially liked the quote from Ellis of “things do not upset us. We upset ourselves.” Despite that being a different mantra per se from CBT, I think that’s generally a good piece of advice to acknowledge moving forward. If you are able to control your emotions and really center yourself, you can start to move past things that may have upset you in the past knowing that you can control your emotions, nothing or nobody else can do that.

      It is also interesting the differences in relationships between CBT and REBT. REBT is more directive and uses the therapist much more than CBT. CBT is more collaborative and works the opposite way almost in that we want the client to do the bulk of the work for themselves so that they do not become independent on someone else to make decisions for them in the future.

      Reply

  3. Lauren Pereira
    Jan 19, 2022 @ 18:05:28

    Bandura’s thoughts on reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy reflects upon personal factors. Reciprocal determinism expresses how an individuals behavior can be influenced by both their environment and their personal factors. Bandura expresses that these actions can be conditioned through consequences. These types of actions can influence the way someone thinks, feels, and acts. With that being said, peoples actions can also effect the environment. Along with this, self-efficacy are people’s beliefs in what they think they are capable of doing. This is a way of finding confidence in oneself and how much it can make a difference on your life and the things you are willing to strive for. Both reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy are related to CBT because both constructs determine each aspect that goes into our daily lives including our thoughts and decisions. In therapy, a part of the process is to identify the individuals thoughts and behaviors in order to find the best ways to treat and encourage more positive outcomes. Identifications of emotions and environmental aspects are present throughout this experience and it gives the therapist and client a better way of determining what changes would be most beneficial.

    Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy has both similarities and differences to CBT. REBT is a type of approach that focuses more on irrational beliefs along with negative thought patterns. This differs from CBT because that type of therapy focuses more on positive outcomes and delivers the message in a brighter way. CBT develops more of a therapeutic relationship with their client than REBT since it is more driven on telling an individual what they should do. Therapist and client work more together during CBT. A similarity between REBT and CBT is that both aspects believe in the importance of repetition throughout therapy. This bring the client to fully understand and acknowledge where they are at. This can be seen through a clients emotions and behaviors. Another similarity is that both of these therapies have goals to remove negative patterns from an individuals life because their goal is to find better solutions and improvements for their clients. The way they go about getting to that end result is where the most differences are present.

    My understanding on Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue is that there are other contributions to how an individual acts than just their environment. Each individual has an internal dialogue that helps lessen our worries and thoughts in order to help us process what is going on around us. This action can be seen in both positive and negative aspects. Sometimes our responses may trigger a high anxiety and others may trigger a more calm emotion. This concept is used within CBT because it indicates how individuals are not always responding to their environment in certain situations. Even though the worries don’t necessarily come from our environment, it still effects how we interact within our environment because it changes our behaviors and how we process information. Identifying these changes can help us make adjustments within CBT.

    Reply

    • Madelyn Haas
      Jan 20, 2022 @ 14:28:51

      Hi Lauren,

      I enjoyed reading your post. Your point on the importance of both self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism was particularly interesting. Both of these concepts influence everyone’s lives every single day which is odd to think about but also very interesting! We make so many small decisions throughout the day (what to eat, where to shop, etc.), and our self-efficacy affects even these little decisions.

      You touched on a lot of similarities and differences between CBT and REBT. The one that stands out the most to me, however, is the collaboration in CBT. That is one aspect that drew me to both the practice of CBT and this program specifically. CBT is a great tool to both empower and help clients make the changes they want to.

      As for your discussion of internal dialogue, I think it is great that you mentioned how it can help and hinder us. Internal dialogue helps us navigate life, but we can also use it to belittle ourselves for minor mistakes or perceived failures. I think that is important to understand and consider, especially in people with depression.

      -Madelyn Haas

      Reply

    • Victoria Cestodio
      Jan 20, 2022 @ 20:45:49

      Lauren,
      I loved reading your post!

      When you mentioned REBT, I like how you mentioned that CBT was similar in the way of repetition throughout therapy. I agree that this brings the client to understand where they are at.

      In regards to internal dialogue, I like how you talked about the two different extremes. Some people, internal dialogue will calm them down, and others it may do the complete opposite. Like you said, it shows that some people are not responding in the appropriate way, which in turn is affecting their own environment.

      Great post!

      Victoria

      Reply

    • Tressa Novack
      Jan 20, 2022 @ 22:01:09

      Hi Lauren,
      I really like how you pointed out that our actions can affect the environment and the environment can affect our actions. It is important to the understanding of reciprocal determinism to recognize that these relationships work in multiple directions. Great point! I also like how you relate self-efficacy to confidence. Self-efficacy plays a big role in how motivated we are to complete certain tasks, how well we will try to do them, and I think, how willing we are to try new things. I would think that if we have high self-efficacy in certain areas, such as math for example, we may be open to trying something such as physics, a math heavy science. Self-efficacy can greatly affect our behavior in this way. I appreciate how you point out REBT’s focus on irrationality. I feel that CBT refers to what Ellis viewed as irrational as maladaptive or thought distortions. I think the use of this language may be better, because it points out that the person may not be helping themselves with their thoughts without making them feel crazy, which I feel the term irrational can imply in some cases. I like how you point out that our internal dialogue can have both positive and negative effects. This is important to recognize, and can be applied to CBT because we want to help clients identify when their internal dialogue is having those negative effects. Then we can focus on helping clients change the negative aspects of their internal dialogue into more neutral or adaptive dialogue. Great post!
      Tressa

      Reply

  4. Tressa Novack
    Jan 20, 2022 @ 21:06:15

    My understanding of reciprocal determinism is that our behaviors, thoughts and emotions, and environment all influence one another. For example, how I perceive an event will affect my thoughts, which will affect my behavior, and my behavior then changes my environment. Reciprocal determinism can also work the other way though. The way I perceive the environment may affect my thoughts and then change my behavior. Basically, I learned that these three things continuously affect one another and lead to change in one way or another. From my understanding, this seems to be continuous too. We are constantly perceiving things and the way we think and act is being affected, even though we may not be aware of it. These constructs are related to CBT, because in CBT we focus on changing people’s thought distortions. By pointing out to people that the their thoughts are resulting from how they perceive their environment we can help people change how they perceive their environment, thus changing their thoughts. This can help people break maladaptive thought patterns.

    An example of how Ellis’ Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is similar to CBT is that both therapies recognize that thoughts and behaviors are not independent of each other. Both therapies recognize that thoughts and behaviors influence each other. Both therapies also recognize that people have the ability to think about their thoughts and work toward changing maladaptive thoughts. A difference between the therapies is that REBT does not come across as being as collaborative as CBT even though it has a humanistic outlook. For example, Ellis describes an intervention in which he disputes the client’s thoughts with them. This can come across as being argumentative and can make the client defensive. CBT focuses more on guiding clients to change their thoughts into more neutral or adaptive thoughts, rather than arguing with them about the usefulness or lack of usefulness of their maladaptive thoughts.

    My understanding of Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” is that our thoughts are verbal. It is like we have a voice in our heads that is speaking to us, almost like we can hear how we think and how we should act. This is relevant to CBT, because we can teach clients to pay more attention to this voice. This can help become more aware of their automatic maladaptive thoughts that they may not otherwise pay attention too. Describing our thoughts as an “internal dialogue” can be a helpful way to get clients to cue into them which will then be helpful in changing them.

    Reply

    • Jeremy
      Jan 23, 2022 @ 19:02:50

      Hi Tressa,

      I really liked your discussion on Bandura, I especially liked how you applied his concepts to CBT, By helping clients identify how their perception is altering their environment, we can identify thoughts that no longer help the client and help them alter their cognition to affect the perceived stress of an environment, this is commonly seen in the treatment of phobias.

      When discussing Ellis’s REBT it is easy to see how it is less cooperative when compared to CBT, however, it’s important to note how individual therapeutic stypes may influence therapy, while Ellis is more combative, other adopters of REBT may have fostered environments more like a modern CBT clinician, and Still, today may CBT practitioners employ a more intense therapeutic style.

      Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue is an excellent tool to get clients to understand and practice metacognition. helping clients identify and give words to an inner dialogue can be a helpful way to communicate in therapy.

      Reply

    • Monika
      Jan 31, 2022 @ 22:25:37

      Hi Tressa,
      I really how you explained reciprocal determinism in such a simple language. I completely agree with the point that our thoughts, behaviors, and the way we perceive our environment are all interconnected and influence each other. For a layperson, it’s going to be next to impossible to imagine that the way we think and act is influenced by the way we perceive things. So, I really like how you mentioned that pointing this out to people can help them break their maladaptive thought patterns. Lastly, I also liked your explanation of Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue, it solidified my understanding of it. I believe educating clients with such theoretical concepts can actually get them to pay attention and actually help them change.
      Great post! Thank You.
      Monika

      Reply

  5. Vanessa Nichols
    Jan 21, 2022 @ 13:21:33

    Reciprocal determinism is based on Bandura’s three factors that influence behavior: the environment, cognition, and behavior itself.
    Reciprocal determinism says that the environment influences behavior, and the behavior also influences that environment, and both are affected by the individual’s thoughts and past behavior. The individual, in turn, is also affected by the environment and their behavior. For example, an Employee motivation level directly impacts the performance of employees. The more motivated your employees are, the better they will perform. Consequently, workplace environment, recognition, and rewards can increase employee motivation. This example shows that the environment, individual, and behavior work simultaneously, not separately. If one of those factors changed, so would everything else. In theory, I understand what Bandura is expressing here, but coming up with real-life examples was very confusing. I think he could have expressed his ideas in easier, less confusing ways.
    In my head, it’s straightforward to see how Reciprocal determinism is essential for CBT, but I am having difficulty putting it into words. I believe reciprocal determinism is necessary for CBT because it relates to how behavior happens. If you are going to help a client change their behavior, it is crucial to understand that behavior is interconnected with the environment and the individual and vice versa.
    Bandura also developed the concept of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy is people’s beliefs in their capabilities to exercise control over their own behavior and, in turn, their own lives. In basic terms, how well an individual can control their behavior in a given situation. Four primary sources form Self-efficacy: Performance accomplishments (past behaviors, rewards, and consequences); performing a task correcting increases self-efficacy while failing would lower it. Vicarious experience (modeling) “Seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort raises observers.” Verbal persuasion (encouragements). Getting verbal encouragement from others helps people overcome self-doubt. Physiological states: moods, physical reactions, and stress levels can all impact how a person feels about their abilities in a particular situation.
    Self-efficacy significantly affects CBT because self-efficacy can affect everything from psychological states to behavior to motivation. Self-efficacy also determines what goals we choose to pursue, how we accomplish those goals, and how we reflect upon our performance (Huge significance for CBT and therapy in general). People with a weak sense of self-efficacy will avoid challenging tasks and believe that complex tasks or unfamiliar situations are beyond their abilities.

    Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is both similar to CBT and different from CBT. Like CBT, Rational emotive behavior therapy believes that human emotions and behavior are created by ideas, beliefs, attitudes, and thinking. One of the fundamental propositions of CBT is that cognitive activity affects behavior. They both believe that changing one’s thinking can lead to emotional and behavioral changes. However, REBT focuses solely on irrational thinking, while CBT is more versatile. A second similarity between the two is the idea of homework between sessions. Both REBT and CBT believe it’s essential to work between therapy sessions to change the behavior. Both CBT and REBT use self-monitoring, role-playing, modeling, and relaxation techniques.
    A major difference between CBT and REBT is the role of the therapist. CBT follows a client-centered focus where the therapist is warm and understanding. REBT does not care as much about the therapist’s warmth or behavior. The focus is solely on the client. CBT is aware that the therapeutic relationship can significantly affect the quality and outcome of therapy.

    I was really interested in Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue. I especially related to the example of test anxiety. I think internal dialogue is very important. I believe people use internal dialogue to talk themselves through all types of situations and help determine the appropriate behavior or response. Internal dialogue can be influenced by the environment, past experiences or consequences, emotions, etc. Internal dialogue influences how we feel about ourselves and our situation. This is important for CBT because this internal dialogue (especially negative) seriously affects our self-efficacy, behavior, goals, etc. If you tell yourself you are going to fail or do bad, that will affect your behavior, confidence, and motivation.

    Reply

    • Will Roche
      Jan 23, 2022 @ 12:02:50

      Hey Vanessa,

      I think you show a good understanding of why reciprocal determinism is tied in with CBT. From my understanding, explaining Reciprocal Determinism and helping educate on how our environments help shape our behaviors and how our behaviors help us choose our environments may be very beneficial to someone who is unable or unwilling to change poor environments for themselves. Similarly, this could be beneficial for those who have trouble altering their behaviors in certain environments that would otherwise benefit them. I would also say there are other parts of reciprocal determinism and how it’s important to CBT, but that’s how I viewed it.

      Reply

      • Lexi
        Jan 26, 2022 @ 17:02:11

        Hi Vanessa

        I like your discussion on the differences and similarities of CBT and REBT. I thought these concepts were extremely similar in that they both propose that there is a relationship between our thoughts and our reactions / or the quality of our experiences. The distinction that REBT focuses on hoe logical the thinking is versus CBT focusing more on adaptive / maladaptive is almost semantics in my opinion, but I think you are correct totally in pointing out that the role of the therapist is a little different. In CBT we are taught to act more as a sounding board or maybe a gentle guide while Ellis certainly had a bit more of a harsh approach, more factual maybe – I think “cold” is a strong word for what I am trying to express but factual / rational. In REBT the therapist is coming from a place of expertise / authority more so than in CBT or ACT in contrast. While both approaches acknowledge that the client has power to create positive change by changing their patterns of thinking and cognition, we are taught in CBT to respect the client as an expert on themselves to a greater extent, I think.

        Reply

    • Lexi
      Jan 26, 2022 @ 16:56:39

      Hi Vanessa

      I like your discussion on the differences and similarities of CBT and REBT. I thought these concepts were extremely similar in that they both propose that there is a relationship between our thoughts and our reactions / or the quality of our experiences. The distinction that REBT focuses on hoe logical the thinking is versus CBT focusing more on adaptive / maladaptive is almost semantics in my opinion, but I think you are correct totally in pointing out that the role of the therapist is a little different. In CBT we are taught to act more as a sounding board or maybe a gentle guide while Ellis certainly had a bit more of a harsh approach, more factual maybe – I think “cold” is a strong word for what I am trying to express but factual / rational. In REBT the therapist is coming from a place of expertise / authority more so than in CBT or ACT in contrast. While both approaches acknowledge that the client has power to create positive change by changing their patterns of thinking and cognition, we are taught in CBT to respect the client as an expert on themselves to a greater extent, I think. Reading the history of CBT and learning about the different movements, ideas, models, and people who have made contributions was certainly valuable this week in understanding where some of these ideas, goals and methods come from.

      Reply

  6. Will Roche
    Jan 21, 2022 @ 15:00:32

    Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism is derived from a social learning perspective in the sense that he believes a person’s behaviors and emotions are not only a product of the environment, but the environment is also a product of a person’s behaviors (i.e this sense of reciprocity). While the individual’s behaviors, thoughts and beliefs can change their environment to make them more adaptable to their current situation, their initial environments and the environments that they continue to surround themselves with also has a significant impact on the individual. Overall, the environments that we are subjected to contribute to the formation of ourselves and our personalities, and thus then allow us to make our own decisions in what certain environments we normally like to be around in. This is a strong theory for our personalities and behaviors because it shows some give and take, or reciprocity, that has helped form our behaviors and ultimately our lives and we choose to live them. Self-efficacy is another term I am familiar with as I have conducted studies and research based on self-efficacy. Self-efficacy refers to how competent a person believes they are at performing and completing a task successfully. A person with high levels of self-efficacy are confident and motivated in being able to complete certain tasks or objectives in front of them. Those that may scale low in self-efficacy are the opposite, and do not believe they are capable of completing certain tasks and then may be less motivated and willing to complete these certain objectives. Both of these constructs are definitely interwoven in the pillars of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Explaining Reciprocal Determinism and helped elucidating how our environments help shape our behaviors and how our behaviors help us choose our environments may be very beneficial to someone who is unable or unwilling to change poor environments for themselves, or those who have trouble altering their behaviors in certain environments that would otherwise benefit them. Similarly, being able to help someone identify their self-efficacy, and then make efforts to improve upon themselves in this area may also start to help them turn the corner on certain life events that hold them back because of their inability to feel self-efficacious, (looking for a new job, considering going to graduate school). Laying the foundation with some of these psychological constructs as psychoeducation for clients could help them turn a corner on how they may be able to improve upon these concepts in therapy.

    CBT and REBT both share some similarities, but also have many differences as well. CBT are REBT are similar in which the underpinnings or foundation of the therapy, including thoughts, behaviors and feelings are similar in wanting to alter these. However, the therapeutic approach for REBT is different from CBT. Alfred Ellis used a colder, more direct approach that aggressively confronts the issues of the clients. With CBT, the approach for therapy is more gradual and catering more towards how well the client may be able to handle certain information. REBT is very direct, and may overlook the response of the client, whereas the approach of CBT allows the therapist to use the clients feelings and actions and use them in a positive manner. A main focus of REBT centers are thoughts being rational or irrational. In CBT, there is a stronger focus on making clients create better environments for themselves and make them more adaptable to environments that they are subject to, but unable to change.

    Meichenbaum’s idea of an internal dialogue is also very important to how therapy works in CBT. This internal dialogue focuses not on how the environment affects us, but rather on how we perceive the environment, and then how we react to that. Everyone sees and views the world in their own unique way, therefore our perceptions of stimuli in our environments are all very different. Our internal dialogue allows us to make these unique interpretations and therefore shape our thoughts, emotions and behaviors. In CBT, therapists work on attempting to change these internal dialogues if they are deemed to be unhealthy or unfit for certain environments that the client may be struggling with. If they are having strong feelings of anxiety, it may be due to their internal dialogue. CBT may be able to help the client alter their dialogue to then therefore become more positive and create more positive outcomes for the client.

    Reply

    • Moises Chauca
      Jan 24, 2022 @ 21:32:58

      Hello Will,

      Your post had good points. You added personality into the Bandura reciprocal determinism approach, and I can see how that can come into play. The reciprocity from environment, behaviors, emotions, and thoughts can definitely play a role in our personalities through observational learning and vicarious experiences. Another point was self-efficacy and motivation are factors that can influence the client as well. Finally, I agree with your point on internal dialogue, the interpretations of these dialogues certainly influence our thought and emotions and how we react of our environment.

      Reply

  7. Monika
    Jan 22, 2022 @ 14:30:09

    From the lectures and readings , my understanding of reciprocal determinism is that it’s about interaction between an individual and their social context. It states that the behavior and the environment are reciprocal systems that the influence is in both directions.That is, the environment molds, maintains, and constrains behavior. But humans are not passive participants in the process, since they have the ability to create and change their surroundings. The majority of environmental variables have an impact on behavior via cognitive processes. External events will be observed, how they will be understood, whether they will have any long-term repercussions, and how the information they communicate will be arranged for future use are all influenced by cognitive factors. The capacity of human beings to use symbols enables them to engage in reflective thought, to create and to plan further course of action or at least think about it. By changing their immediate environment and by having options for themselves, people can exercise some influence over their own behavior. So even though our behavior is influenced by our environment, the environment is partly our own making.
    Self-efficacy is a person’s belief that they are capable of achieving a specific goal or performing a particular result. The more your self-efficacy the more you will believe that you are capable of achieving a task or goal. Since self-efficacy is an individual’s belief about themselves it plays a crucial role in positive outcomes of CBT. Since our cognition or thinking patterns are such an important part of CBT, improving self-efficacy can help us modify a person’s behavior like in case of anxiety disorders.

    Key difference between REBT and CBT is in some of the more specific techniques used as well as the fact that REBT has a philosophical basis that emphasizes concepts such as tolerance and social interest.
    REBT also has an intrinsic existential-humanistic outlook, unlike most other CBT approaches. It also sees psychological disturbances as a partial outcome of taking life too seriously and advocates the appropriate use of humorous therapeutic methods.While, they are similar in a way that both REBT and CBT both agree that our cognition’s may affect our behavior, our cognition’s can be changed and our behaviors and emotions may change as a result of our changes in cognition’s.

    According to Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue, clients can change their behavior by changing the instructions they give themselves in the form of ‘self-talk’ to more adaptive ones. These internal dialogues are externalized during a CBT session and discussed, then coping strategies are developed to deal with them. The internal dialogue is really crucial because, self-instructions are especially important in coping with stressful situations. Like, for example if someone is going through a stressful situation and asked what their thoughts about it are and they may say ‘I can’t cope’. They are then encouraged to develop and practice more positive self-statements such as ‘worrying won’t help’, ‘one step at a time’ and ‘it could be worse’, and reinforcing self-statements such as ‘that was better’.

    Reply

    • Vanessa Nichols
      Jan 23, 2022 @ 13:12:42

      Hi Monika,
      I really liked your response this week. Your reciprocal determinism description helped clear up some confusion I was facing. I really like how you included that humans are not passive participants. The environment does not just happen in a vacuum. Our emotions, thoughts, past experiences all continuously play a role in our lives and behavior. Your description really helped me see how it was beneficial to CBT. Helping clients understand that they are partly responsible for the environment can influence change.
      I also liked how you explained internal dialogue and how these internal dialogues are externalized during cbt sessions. Understanding how clients talk to themselves is critical, especially in stressful or negative situations. Understanding their automatic thought process can provide a lot of information about their beliefs about themselves and the future. That was a great way of explaining how cbt and internal dialogue mix.
      Thank you!

      Reply

  8. Emily Barefield
    Jan 22, 2022 @ 22:20:32

    According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism is the idea that behavior influences potential environmental influences and theses environmental influences impact behavior. Both the environment and behavior do not function as separate domains but are influenced by each other. Behavior has the potential to create environmental conditions and to regulate the impact of environmental conditions. Bandura’s concept of reciprocal determinism is in direct contrast to strict behavioralism that was common at the time Bandura wrote. Strict behavioralists argue people are controlled by external forces that determine their behavior and that people’s actions are a product of the reinforcers and punishers in their environment. Bandura argues instead that environmental sources of control and personal control exist in a bidirectional relationship. Bandura proposed that the environment, personal factors, and behavior are all determinants of each other. This idea fits well with the idea in CBT that thoughts, feelings, and behaviors all impact each other. In CBT, the thoughts can be targeted for change and restructuring in order to impact behavior or feelings. Similarly, the environment can be modified to make behavior modification more achievable. According to Bandura, self-efficacy is an individual’s perceived competency related to performing a certain behavior or behaviors required in a given situation. A person’s expectations of efficacy comes from their performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and physiological states. A person’s self-efficacy impacts the environments they choose to remain in. The concept of self-efficacy is relevant to CBT in that the therapists strive to work to increase the client’s self-efficacy, specifically in regards to their ability to cope in stressful situations. Self-efficacy provides a basis for predicting the occurrence, generality, and persistence of coping and so growth in self-efficacy must be targeted for treatment success.

    Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy is similar to CBT in that it also recognizes the importance of thoughts on emotions and behavior. Ellis emphasizes that emotions do not come to be on their own but rather that they come from thoughts, ideas, attitudes, and beliefs and that these emotions can be changed by altering these processes. He also argues that when a person is experiencing emotion, they are doing as much thinking as when they think logically. This is similar to the inner relatedness of thoughts and emotions described in CBT. Additionally, Ellis described faulty ways of thinking that lead to emotional distress, and these ways of thinking are described as cognitive distortion (or common styles of thinking) in CBT. Ellis’s Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy tends to have less emphasis on the relational aspects of the therapeutic relationship. Ellis does emphasize the importance of a therapeutic relationship for teaching, feedback, and accountability purposes, but the emphasis on connection and relationship is not nearly as emphasized.

    Lastly, internal dialogue is the inner speech that occurs within an individual that influence their behavior and their cognitive structures. One function of this is to give self-instruction. This can be utilized in CBT by having the individual learn to give themselves instructions on how to cope in a difficult situation. Meichenbaum also emphasizes the role of cognition and internal dialogue in interpreting stress and physiological arousal. In CBT, this idea can be utilized to help clients learn to interpret these experiences in a less distressing manner by intentionally modifying their internal dialogue.

    Reply

    • Jeremy
      Jan 23, 2022 @ 19:54:56

      Hey Emily,

      I really enjoyed your discussion on Bandura, I think the way you noted the historical perspective very well, now we see Banduas’s concepts as obvious, but given the interest of the field of the time we can see how revolutionary these ideas are could be.
      I really liked how you attributed meichenbam to modern CBT, Internal dialogue’s role in interpreting stress and physiological arousal is often overlooked in favor of a more biochemical model, so by stressing the role of cognition in stress CBT therapists can provide an avenue of change for the client. A client can work to minimize the perceived stress of an environment, in a sense using cognition and behavior to adjust the environment around them.

      Best,
      Jeremy

      Reply

    • Moises Chauca
      Jan 24, 2022 @ 21:20:43

      Hello Emily,

      I enjoyed reading your post. You made a good point about Bandura reciprocal determinism contradicting the behavioral approach because this approach created the idea that the client does not have control over their actions and lose sense of responsibility for them. Another good point you made it was about self-efficacy, it is true that their self-efficacy impacts their environment and that then influences their behaviors, emotions, and thoughts. Your examples of self-efficacy were good, coping exercises are important and correlate to the client self-efficacy. Lastly, I agree with you that internal dialogue is crucial in the CBT field, as we help client interpret experiences in a less stressful way.

      Reply

  9. Jeremy
    Jan 23, 2022 @ 16:17:36

    Bandura’s concept of reciprocal Determinism primarily serves to shift conditions from an independent variable to a complex dependent variable in the conceptual framework. This concept separates Bandura from behaviorist claims that we can not measure or know if cognition exists. IN this model, behavior cognition, and extreme environments all are interconnected, Best explained in the example of Television viewing, where personal preference (cognition) is both affected by and affects the larger TV production environment. Similarly, the behavioral patterns(how and when the content is consumed) simultaneously exert force upon the environment and behavior patterns. SImilarly, The behavior of watching TV changes preferences over time and the selected environment meets or fails the individual’s expectations.
    Under reciprocal determinism, we can infer that behavior is not the sum of a function of inner forces and external stimuli, but rather our behaviors are interlocked with personal factors and the environment in a bidirectional cycle of change, whereby the individual can to some extent have free will. Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy is the concept that one’s individual perception of their ability to complete a task affects the completion of a task if an individual has higher self-efficacy in a certain task of the field they will be more willing and ready to engage in that task. Individuals with higher self-efficacy are more likely to take chances and continue to engage in the task, giving them guiding experience and positively reinforcing the given task.
    Both of bandura’s theories lend themselves well to modern CBT, the importance of the interlocking determinants of Behavior, cognition, and environment Is assumed as therapy is focused on identifying thought patterns and using the altered awareness to influence clients’ behavior. Additionally, self-efficacy is employed in cbt thought the focus of teaching clients tools and skills to identify cognitions, by familiarizing them to the concepts in therapy, we hope to increase their self-efficacy towards improvement.
    Ellis’s Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) is a clear and obvious precursor to modern CBT practices, both rely on cognition affecting behavior, and that our environment does not directly upset us, instead our cognitions of our environment hurt us. However, Ellis’s REBT had major differences that separate it from CBT, which has evolved from Ellises prescribed psychotherapy to a collaborative setting that no longer focuses on irrational thinking, instead of accepting clients where they are at and not labeling the cognitions as rational or irrational.

    Reply

    • Jeremy
      Jan 23, 2022 @ 19:03:29

      With roots in Plato, Meichenbaum’s internal dialogue presents the cognitive structures of ones own inner verbalizations, While a very old concept Meichenaum presents logic for why and how inner dialogue is present and what function it serves. Different internal dialogues interpret the same environmental stimuli differently. This is a good example of a model of mental process, affecting how we interpret our environment, and CBT employs knowledge of the internal dialogue when attempting to identify and alter brain functioning in clients. Understanding that our internal dialogue is at least partially responsible for our behavior, CBT clinicians hope to influence cognition leading to a more positive internal dialogue.

      Reply

      • Pilar Betts
        Jan 25, 2022 @ 16:55:41

        Hello Jeremy,

        I really liked that you pointed out that Meichenbaum’s internal dialogues was a good example of mental processes, and their affect on how we interpret our environment,
        I agree it is important for clients to have an understanding oh how their internal dialogue has influence on their behavior. A CBT counselor can utilize exercises such as word association to gain access to the clients internal dialogue, not to mention by just saying what they are thinking out loud may cause the client to have a realization about the way they think and how it may be harmful to them. I also enjoyed your example of television in your explanation of reciprocal determinism, it reminded me of the debate people have over violent video games and tv and its influence on children. It goes to show you that there is more that influences a persons behaviors than simply modeling. It is the mindset when playing the game or watching the show and how the person applies that to other areas of their life rather than the fact they may just play the game and are automatically more violent.

        Reply

      • Monika
        Jan 31, 2022 @ 22:43:39

        Hi Jeremy,
        Wow, I really enjoyed reading your post! Your explanation of reciprocal determinism is on point and I loved the example you gave about mass television viewing and how people’s behavioral patterns and thought patterns are influenced on such a larger scale. I never actually thought about this in the context of reciprocal determinism. Also, I liked the way you explained self-efficacy and how you connected Bandura’s theories to modern CBT because CBT is all about identifying and altering maladaptive thought patterns.
        Really great post! Thank You.
        Monika

        Reply

  10. Moises Chauca
    Jan 23, 2022 @ 19:56:02

    Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism theory explains that a person behavior, thoughts, or emotions are not influenced solely by environmental or external influences but that their behavior, thoughts, emotions, and environment interact in an influential and driving manner. An example of this interaction is when a person actions modify external or environmental factors that in return modifies the person future actions, and the experiences from these actions influence the person emotions and thoughts. Furthermore, self-efficacy explains that people behavior are directed and guided by the person beliefs of success and motivation. A person with high self-efficacy are willing to set higher goals, take more risks, and have a stronger commitment and perseverance. Both of these constructs are much related and are used in CBT. CBT emphasizes the interaction between the person emotions, thoughts, behaviors, and external influences as reciprocal as well. In CBT, it is crucial for our patients to understand this reciprocal interaction, as we want them to take a sense of responsibility for their actions and disregard the notion of being influenced solely by our environment. In CBT, self-efficacy is seen as well, we use goal setting and treatment plans that require the client to accomplish a specific task in specific situations. If a client does not have the necessary self-efficacy to complete the task, the client most likely will not see themselves completing it. Finally, I really like these approaches as they provide more information about people’s behaviors, emotions, and thoughts, and they are very relatable to my personal experiences.

    Ellis’s REBT have some similarities and differences compared to CBT. One similarity is that these approaches view behaviors, emotions, thoughts, and environment as an interactive process rather than independent. Another similarity is that these approaches shared a purpose to help and better the person life by removing or changing negative behaviors that affect their lives. However, they have different views about the therapeutic change and their understanding of the person problem. REBT emphasizes on the person’s irrational thinking patterns that influence their behaviors and emotions. CBT focuses on the person maladaptive behaviors, emotions, and thoughts. Finally, CBT takes a different approach on the therapeutic change as the therapist and client collaborate to set goals and create a treatment plan that best fit the client. REBT does not take this collaborative approach and the therapist is the one coming up with goals and interventions

    My understanding of internal dialogue is this dialogue is an important structure of cognition and that it functions as a self-instructor that influences our emotions and behaviors. Internal dialogue is described as an inner voice that helps us sort out our thoughts. In people, internal dialogue can be a soothing or negative experience. An example of this, a person that has anxiety about their job interview, would tell themselves that everything will be fine and that they will get the job to decrease their anxiety. This construct is crucial to modern CBT because many techniques like role play and goal setting involve the person using their internal dialogue to talk about their thoughts and feelings. In addition, CBT therapist focus on making change on the person internal dialogue as it affects how they perceive their environment and experiences.

    Reply

    • Lexi
      Jan 26, 2022 @ 16:28:43

      Hi Moises

      I really enjoyed your discussion on Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy. You pointed out that the individual who is high in self-efficacy is more likely to set loftier goals, recover after a failure or have stronger levels of resiliency and perseverance. After thinking more on this point in the context of therapy I can see how being aware of our clients’ levels of self-efficacy can affect how we approach therapy and what goals we are willing to set with w client. For example, if we are working with someone who know to be low in self-efficacy, we can guess they may not benefit from having a high goal set where there is a higher chance of failure, this could be damaging to that client and so goals set in therapy should be very attainable in order to create successes and to boost that individual’s level of self-efficacy. Maybe if a few weeks in a row the client is able to be successful in these small goals they will start to have more faith in their ability to complete tasks and to be successful more generally. Conversely, if we are working with a client who is very high in self-efficacy then we can feel more comfortable to really challenge them and know that they will be resilient in the case of failure to hit a goal. As therapists it is important to work with as much information as possible and to be mindful of the strengths and weaknesses of the client – self efficacy I am realizing is such a huge factor in that regard.

      Reply

  11. Lexi
    Jan 24, 2022 @ 21:25:32

    According to Bandura and his ideas on reciprocal determinism a person’s behaviors are influenced by personal factors such as thoughts, attitudes, and other cognitive activities and also things in the environment. Bandura also suggested that this relationship works both ways, meaning that behaviors can influence cognition and the environment as well. These three factors according to Bandura, all can influence each other to varying degrees depending on the person and the situation. This is really quite similar or almost identical really to the CBT triangle which consists of behavior, cognition and emotion. The difference being that in Bandura’s “triangle” the environment takes the place of emotion. These ideas are similar in that they suggest that there is a complex two-way relationship pr exchange happening between a person’s internal experiences and behaviors and their external behaviors, emotions etc. Our thoughts according to each set of ideas do affect our behaviors and vice versa, however Bandura seems to pay more attention to the role of the environment while CBT talks more about emotions and psychological state than Bandura. This concept is important to understand in the context of CBT. Self-efficacy according to Bandura is the confidence we have in our ability to be successful within specific domains or in completing specific tasks and to create the desired outcome. As an example, a car mechanic has high self-efficacy in their ability to change the oil in a car, while someone working in a bakery may have low self-efficacy in their ability to change the oil in their car but high self-efficacy in their ability to decorate a wedding cake. Self-efficacy is our belief about our abilities and is wrapped up into our overall self-worth. This concept is important to understand in the context of CBT and therapy because we want to understand the struggles of out clients, as well as their perceived strengths and weaknesses. It is also essential in therapy that the client have a feeling that they can, or are able to change their situation. Building self-efficacy for this reason is essential to the therapeutic process in CBT.

    Ellis was a part of what the readings call the cognitive revolution in the 1960s his Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) was based in the assumption that our thoughts about an event lead to changes in emotional state and behavior. The goal is to reveal or change irrational thoughts to improve the quality of the person’s emotional experiences and create more adaptive behaviors. These are also the goals of CBT, making REBT closely related. Ellis would say it is not the thing in our environment which upsets us or causes us distress, but rather it is our own reactions to those things which can be beneficial or harmful. Both concepts suggest that changing behaviors or changing emotional state is possible through intentional and purposeful changes in our own cognition. In this was I think Ellis, REBT and CBT both create a sense of empowerment – (self-efficacy) for individuals and clients to change. Both empower the client to change their own life. Another similarity is the focus on emotion, thought and behavior. Both concepts accept that there is an exchange between our internal thoughts and our external environment. A key difference however is that Ellis focused on logic or rationality, he thinks of thoughts as either being logical or illogical, rational or irrational – while in CBT we tend to think of thoughts as either adaptive or maladaptive. Similar concept but I think this is an important point of difference. REBT – and the approach of Ellis in therapy was a bit um, forceful or directive more so I think than is intended in CBT. In CBT the therapist should be more of a sounding board or a guide, I feel that in REBT there is more of a challenge to the client by the therapist.

    Meichenbaum’s concept of internal dialogue is the inner speech we have in our minds, this is obviously super important for CBT because we want to be examining patterns in clients’ cognitions, thoughts, emotions etc. and so much of how people process those things are in the form of this internal speech. Internal dialogue can affect our behaviors and how we cope with or interact with the environment. These internal conversations can help or hurt us and so gaining insight into these internal behaviors is very useful in therapy and in bolstering self-efficacy, if we believe that our internal dialogue holds power then we can start to use it more beneficially. CBT teaches that our emotions and behaviors and thoughts are all interwoven and can effect one another – internal dialogue itself is a behavior and a thought – and it can effect emotional state in either a negative or a positive direction for the client. In each of these concepts, REBT, CBT, and in internal dialogue the focus is on how we or our clients interacts with and responds to our environment and to our thoughts / emotions. Understanding these interactions is incredibly important for development of the self and also to helping others in the role of therapist.

    Reply

    • Emily Barefield
      Jan 26, 2022 @ 17:47:52

      Hi Lexi,

      I think you did a great job of describing Bandura’s ideas on reciprocal determinism and comparing and contrasting them to the CBT triangle. CBT does seem more emotion focused than Bandura’s ideas. I do think as therapists it is important to consider both. I also appreciate the examples you provided.

      The cognitive focus on pointing out irrational thoughts to clients and changing them you highlighted is certainly an important commonality between REBT and CBT. I also like how you pointed out Ellis’s REBT, and CBT, can create a sense of empowerment for the client and increase their motivation to change.I think both differences you pointed out are important distinctions.

      I like how you framed the internal dialogue as a conversation we have with ourselves that can be beneficial or harmful. I completely agree that understanding how this conversation interacts with environment and emotion is important in ourselves and in our clients. Good post!

      Reply

    • Sandra Karic
      Jan 26, 2022 @ 22:47:27

      Hi Lexie,
      I liked the way you explained the different aspects of reciprocal determinism and how you compared it to the CBT triangle. I agree with your points on how REBT and CBT both seek to empower the client but REBT is more directive. I also think that wording is important and adaptive/maladaptive sounds less stigmatizing than logical/illogical. Finally, I really like how you described internal dialogue as a modifiable behavior that influences emotions and related it back to CBT.

      Reply

  12. Sandra Karic
    Jan 24, 2022 @ 22:56:13

    I think Bandura’s writing on reciprocal determinism is really interesting. I understand it as the environment influences people’s behaviors but people’s behaviors also influence the environment. I think people often describe reciprocal determinism as more optimistic because it emphasizes how people influence their environment which seems to suggest more free will. However sometimes I feel like the environment and past experiences would give people the knowledge that they can control (to a degree) their environment, so I’m not really sure if it’s truly that much more optimistic in terms of free will. But I think I have a tendency to also get overly philosophical about these types of things.
    Self efficacy is the degree to which individuals believe they are capable of certain tasks/behaviors or learning said tasks and behaviors. I thought the part about how externalizing and internalizing have potentially beneficial functions was particularly interesting. Externalizing a negative event can release an individual from blaming themselves, but internalizing can make it more likely for an individual to perform better in the future.

    Ellis’s takes on REBT did strike me as similar to CBT, especially in regards to the relationship between thoughts, emotions, and behaviors. I really liked the way he described some of the common styles of thinking/cognitive distortions. I also thought the dialogue examples he provided were often very funny (I think incompetent worm may be my new favorite phrase). Regardless, he highlights how “irrational” interpretations and beliefs can lead to painful emotional experiences that are not really necessary. However, I think CBT is more collaborative and in this day and age gentler. Maybe gentler isn’t the right word, but I do think most current CBT practitioners would ease clients into some of these discussions and probably would not straight up call clients irrational.

    I loved reading Meichenbaum’s perspective on internal dialogue. I especially liked the emphasis on describing our thoughts as a dialogue, not a monologue, in the sense that listening to what we tell ourselves is an important aspect of the process. I also strongly resonated with some of the examples of speech and test anxiety, wherein people would essentially make themselves more anxious with the things they thought to themselves. I think this perspective is relevant to CBT because it also highlights the relationship between thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.

    Reply

    • Pilar
      Jan 25, 2022 @ 16:43:24

      Hello Sandra!
      I enjoyed reading your post. I really liked when you discussed externalizing versus internalizing when you discussed efficacy, when clients externalize a negative event then they are able to displace blame on themselves and by internalizing this can make them more likely to perform better in the future. I think this is important because a person that has low efficacy isn’t the only problem a person can have high efficacy and not be taking responsibility when they make a mistake or blame others when things go wrong.

      Reply

    • Emily Barefield
      Jan 26, 2022 @ 17:37:47

      Hi Sandra,

      I like your discussion of free will and reciprocal determinism. Past experiences are a great source for us to learn about ourselves, our environment, and our relationship to our environment. I think this is tangentially related to the idea that the patient is the expert on themselves. We can become very knowledgable about ourselves through studying our past experiences and environments. I also liked how you talked about how externalizing and internalizing can be “good” when applied in different situations. In the past, I think I have oversimplified internal locus of control as “good” and external locus of control as “bad.”

      I agree! I also liked the common styles of thinking/cognitive distortions and can certainly relate to some of them at times. I also had the impression that CBT has a more gentle approach than REBT.

      I also really liked the idea that our thoughts are a dialogue, not a monologue. I think it resonates well with my own experience. I also related to the speech and test anxiety examples in the reading. I enjoyed reading your post.

      Reply

  13. Pilar Betts
    Jan 25, 2022 @ 16:35:57

    Bandura is most well known for social learning theory. Social learning theory demonstrates the concept of observational learning in which someone sees a behavior and they in turn imitate that behavior. Social Learning theory is the perfect starting point for the discussion of self efficacy and reciprocal determinism because they all relate to the personal influences such a cognition and behavior on a person’s environment. Bandura expresses his thoughts on reciprocal determinism and self efficacy both in reference to personal factors that impact behavior. Reciprocal determinism means that the environment influences behavior and behaviors influence the environment. There are two types of environments, the potential environment and the actual environment, according to this theory everyone starts off with the same potential environment and then behaviors influence the actual environment.According to Bandura it is environment, personality and cognition that influence the actual environment. This relates to CBT because, like CBT the concept on actual versus potential environment addresses the impact that both behaviors and cognition have influences on eachother and on the person’s overall environment.All of these factors together influence a person. In regards to self efficacy, this is a person’s belief of whether or not they are able to do something. A person can have different levels of efficacy, A person with high efficacy tends to learn from their mistakes and get back up while a person with low efficacy goes into the situation with the belief that they are already incapable without even completing the task first. How a person thinks is a important aspect of CBT because if a person has low efficacy then the therapist would work with the client to increase their confidence in themselves and help them to discover why they think like that, a really good example of this is in CBT when the therapist asks the client “what’s the worst that could happen” This forces the client to think about why they are thinking so negatively and address their concerns.

    To my understanding Rational Emotive Therapy helps the client to identify the self defeating feelings and thoughts they have and encourages them to challenge how rational those feelings are and then they are supposed to replace them with healthier more positive thoughts. Ellis describes anxiety as just threats, and shame as anticipation that someone will discover something about you, and these are just thoughts the person is exaggerating the significance of. Ellis expresses Rational Emotive Therapy as always being cognitive, emotive and behavioral and there is an A,B, and C just like in Behavioral, in RET the A is for activating event or thought, B is for belief system and whether its rational or irrational and lastly C is for consequences. Rational Emotive Therapy allows the client to understand where their intrusive thoughts are coming from and to establish more positive thoughts and feelings about themselves. Ellis mentions that a lack of self acceptance is what often causes these thoughts, which makes sense because if you lack acceptance of yourself in a particular aspect you begin to think in negative ways about it. For example someone who has a fear of public speaking may tell themselves, well they weren’t meant to do speeches or that their speeches or what they have to say isn;t important to avoid the behavior. REBT takes on a confrontational, more teacher and student approach, while in CBT the client is the expert on themselves. In REBT the therapist models what is considered rational in the situation and in CBT the therapist simply guides the client to realize how their mindset is affecting them. Ellis works to convince his client that their beliefs are distorted by cognitive errors rather than irrational beliefs. Both CBT and REBT focus on the impact of the clients personal beliefs and perceptions influences on their behaviors. CBT focuses on the move toward change for the client and why the thoughts may not be helpful rather than focusing on the thoughts being rational or irrational like in REBT. In both CBT and REBT the therapist is able to get the client to eventually identify unhealthy thought processes, the main difference is the approach to get the client to understand.

    Meichenbaum’s “internal dialogue” is important to CBT because internal dialogue is a “self instructional method” ; a person’s internal dialogue is what drives them to make certain decisions. A person’s “internal dialogue” holds influences from their beliefs, and experiences. In CBT, therapist’s ask their clients to address their belief system. In CBT therapists can work with their clients to help the client adjust their self instructions so that they can use instructions that get them through particular situations of concern. Meichenbaum uses self-instructional training, this training helps clients to become aware of their self-talk and the stories they tell about themselves. This technique can be used in CBT to help clients establish healthier thinking and or coping mechanisms.

    Reply

    • Lexi
      Jan 26, 2022 @ 17:00:53

      Hi Pilar
      I like your thoughts on internal dialogue! Linking that concept to the self-instructional model made a lot of sense to me and so I loved that you tied those concepts together. I agree that self-talk can be such a helpful tool or a harmful one, and that clients should receive the proper psychoeducation into how our cognitions and patterns of thinking / self-talk really do hold that power in our lives and in our interactions with others.

      Reply

    • Sandra Karic
      Jan 26, 2022 @ 22:27:08

      Hi Pilar,
      I really liked how you described reciprocal determinism and self-efficacy in the context of social learning theory and the emphasis you placed on the potential and actual environment. I also liked how you explained Ellis’s perspective and the importance of self-acceptance. I absolutely agree with you on the differences between REBT and CBT and think you did an awesome job describing the differences in the therapeutic relationship between the two approaches. The student teacher relationship vs the client as an expert was a great example of how the two differ!

      Reply

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Adam M. Volungis, PhD, LMHC

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